Elderly dog given new lease on life with turmeric

Elderly dog given new lease on life with turmeric and caring new family

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Elizabeth Seal

A while back I posted about a 19 year old collie cross called Kia we offered a retirement home to after her owners left her at the pound to be pts. She was very stiff and could hardly walk, she has been on Golden Paste for just over 2 weeks now.. These are the results!



  • This is the recipe I use. smile emoticon thank you for your kind words everyone it means so much to me. I had originally thought we may only have her for a few months but now I’m starting to wonder if she will outlive us all !
    Elizabeth Seal's photo.


If people are interested they can follow her progress on Instagram. She’s currently doing a 100 day photo challenge entitled #100daysgoldenoldie


and a little more information :


* 150g of turmeric powder

* 250ml of water, and a little more in reserve if needed

* 1 ½ teaspoons of freshly ground black pepper

* 70ml cold pressed olive or coconut oil.

Place the water and turmeric in a pan, stirring over a gentle heat until you

have a thick paste. This should take about 7-10 minutes but don’t panic if it

takes longer! If your paste goes a little to thick add some of the extra water.

Once you have got your paste take off the heat and add the pepper and oil, stir

well make sure it is all mixed together. Allow to cool then store in a

sterilised glass jar in the fridge. The paste should keep for up to 4 weeks.

This paste is for animals and humans, start off on about 1\4tsp and

gradually build up over a few weeks, until you see a difference in

yourself/animal. Feed morning and evening if possible. There isn’t a specific dosage

so what works for one may not work for the other.

Piperine, from fresh ground black pepper, will increase the absorbency of

other substances in your stomach- so if you are on regular medication, you may

experience a higher absorbency rate than intended for those drugs. Please

consult your doctor or pharmacist.


Source: Turmeric User Group UK (Facebook)

Cancer and silver


Scientists say that old wives tales about the precious metal being a ‘silver bullet’ to beat the Big C could be true.

The metal already has a wide range of medicinal uses and is a common antiseptic, antibiotic and means of purifying water in the third world.

Good news: Silver can kill some cancers as effectively as chemotherapy and with potentially fewer side effects, new research has claimed

Good news: Silver can kill some cancers as effectively as chemotherapy and with potentially fewer side effects, new research has claimed

And British researchers now say that silver compounds are as effective at killing certain cancer cells as a leading chemotherapy drug, but with potentially far fewer side-effects.

They compared it to Cisplatin, currently used to treat a wide variety of cancers, but known to have harsh side effects including nausea, vomiting and even kidney damage.

Silver is used already in everyday products such as deodorant with no known side-effects, and could make for a potentially cheaper alternative to platinum-based Cisplatin.

Results, published in journal Dalton Transactions, showed that these silver-compounds were ‘as effective as Cisplatin’ at killing cancer with potentially fewer side effects.

While the team are still unsure about how exactly silver battles cancer, they think its effectiveness may be caused by the structure surrounding silver atoms, known as its ligand.

Way forward: Researchers from the University of Leeds found that silver could be used to help defeat breast cancer

They think this may help release the silver ion into cells when it enters the body, killing any cancer.

Study author Dr Charlotte Willans plans to spend the next year looking closely at what effect silver has on both cancerous and healthy cells, and whether it could be a safe and effective new anti-cancer drug.

She said: ‘It’s certainly an exciting discovery, although I think we have a lot of work to do in the future. It opens the doors in terms of what we can do and investigate.

‘Getting these results also gives us the opportunity we need to apply for funding to take the research further.

‘This could lead to a cheaper, less toxic alternative to current treatments for cancer.’

Explaining the research in greater detail, Dr Willans added: ‘As many are unfortunately aware, chemotherapy can be a very gruelling experience for the patient.

‘Finding effective, yet non-toxic drugs is an ongoing problem, but these preliminary results are an important step in solving it.

‘Our research has looked at the structure which surrounds a central silver atom. This “shrubbery” is what determines how reactive it is and what it will interact with.

‘Our research has used different types of these ligands to see which is the most effective against cancer cells.’

How the Infection-Fighting Power of Silver Was Re-Discovered


How the Infection-Fighting Power of Silver Was Re-Discovered



The history of the medical and therapeutic use of silver is a fascinating one, going back many centuries. 


Here’s a brief overview taking you from 425 B.C. to the present day, and demonstrating conclusively through historical documentation that colloidal silver is indeed the world’s most effective natural infection-fighting agent…      


Available in South Africa:


Colloidal silver 500ml
Colloidal silver 500ml


Hi, Steve Barwick here, for www.TheSilverEdge.com


The phenomenal healing and infection-fighting qualities of silver have been known quite literally since before the time of Christ.


Indeed, according to the records of Herodotus, written in 425 B.C., ancient Persian kings such as Cyrus the Great insisted their water was carried in silver vessels when going off to war, in order to prevent it from becoming contaminated.


Of course, since this was long before the realization that microbes are the cause of infection or contamination, the silver was being used empirically.   It was simply observed that water did not become impure and make you sick when you drink it, if it was stored in silver vessels.

* * * * *


In his study published in the journal Surgical Infections, J. Wesley Alexander writes:

“The ancient Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and others also were recorded to have used silver in one form or another to preserve food and water from spoiling. 

The application of silver plates to achieve better wound healing was used by the Macedonians, perhaps the first attempt to prevent or treat surgical infections.

Hippocrates used silver preparations for the treatment of ulcers and to promote wound healing”

* * * * *

And in 78 A.D. Pliny the Elder wrote, “”[Slag of silver] has healing properties as an ingredient in plasters, being extremely effective in causing wounds to close up.”


* * * * *

What’s more, it’s said that early American pioneers always placed a silver dollar into buckets of milk in order to help keep the milk for spoiling quickly.


And for centuries, long before the advent of refrigeration, the people of India have pounded silver into thin, delicate sheets called varakh, which are about one hundredth of the thickness of a sheet of paper.


These sheets of silver are used to wrap candies and foods in order to prevent them from spoiling in the country’s hot outdoor food bazaars.


Traditionally, the food is eaten foil and all, because of its ability to prevent stomach infections that can be caused by eating the unrefrigerated foods.



The Advent of Colloidal Silver


After Edison showed the world how to harness and utilize electricity in 1879, scientists quickly discovered that they could suspend silver rods in pure water, and sinter tiny silver particles off of them by running electricity through them.


This became known as electrically-generated colloidal silver.  Chemical processes were also invented for making a variety of colloidal silver solutions.


And by the late 1930’s – well before the advent of prescription antibiotic drugs — colloidal silver in its various forms had become one of the most popular infection-fighting substances among doctors, being sold under the names of Collargol, Protargol, Electrargol, Lunasol and many others.

* * * * *

” Without overstating the case, it may be time to recognisz colloidal silver as not only the safest medicine on Earth, but also the most powerful.

Dr Robert C Beck (D.Sc 1999)

* * * * *


As Robert Bartholow wrote of silver’s infection-fighting qualities in A Practical Treatise on Materia Medica and Therapeutics, way back in 1908: 

“As a topical agent, silver may be used in surgical diseases, wounds, injuries, and in cases of septic decomposition.

 Wherever diseases— either pure or mixed infectious—are caused by the staphylococcus, the streptococcus, and other forms of low organisms, this remedy is effective in a high degree.”* * * * *

* * * * *

And as Dr. William Halstead, M.D., one of the founding fathers of modern surgery, stated of silver in 1913:

“We may only have scratched the surface of silver’s medical brilliance! Already it is an amazing tool!

It stimulates bone – forming cells, cures the most stubborn infections of all kinds…and stimulates healing in skin and other soft tissues.

 I know of nothing which could quite take its place, nor, have I known anyone to abandon it who had thoroughly familiarized himself with the technique of its application. “

* * * * *

As the British Medical Journal stated in February 1917:

“Colloidal silver has been used successfully in septic conditions of the mouth including pyorrhea alveolysis, throat, ear, and in generalized septicemia, leucorrhea, cystitis, whooping cough and shingles.”


* * * * * 

As Alfred E. Searle, author of Colloids in Biology and Medicine wrote in 1919:

Applying colloidal silver to human subjects has been done in a large number of cases with astonishingly successful results…it has the advantage of being rapidly fatal to microbes without toxic action on its host. It is quite stable. It protects rabbits from ten times the lethal dose of tetanus or diphtheria toxin.” 


* * * * * 

As Dr. Henry Crooks, M.D. stated in 1921:

“I know of no microbe that is not killed by silver in laboratory experiments in six minutes.”

And finally, according to The National Druggist, Vol. 50, page 388, in August 1920:

“Colloidal silver is powerfully destructive of toxins of bacterial origin…Experiments on rabbits show that colloidal silver renders subject ‘immune’ from the effects of large quantities of tetanic or diphtheritic serum.

…colloidal silver has proved its value in combating the following ailments among others — tonsilitis, gonorrhoeal conjunctivitis, spring catarrh, pustular eczema of scalp, septic ulcers of legs, boils, chronic cystiitis, ringwork, soft sores.

 But we must not prolong the list of the good works of colloidal silver. Suffice it that at the present time it is the most extensively used in medicine of all the sols.”


* * * * *


The Rise and Fall of Antibiotic Drugs


But after the advent of prescription antibiotic drugs in the late 1930’s, colloidal silver usage gradually fell out of favor with doctors. And antibiotic drugs were widely embraced in its stead.


However, by the 1970’s — less than 40 years after the advent of prescription antibiotic drugs – the antibiotics were already losing their luster, due to the ability of pathogens to mutate and adapt to them.


In other words, it was already being documented by medical science that antibiotic drugs began to lose their effectiveness against pathogens relatively rapidly, as the pathogens mutated in response to their presence.


This lead researchers and cutting edge doctors to begin looking for alternatives to prescription antibiotics.


Some doctors began researching the older medical literature, asking themselves, “How did we treat infections prior to the advent of prescription antibiotic drugs?”


And as a result, interest in silver slowly began making a comeback.


Dr. Robert O. Becker, M.D.


By the mid-1970s, a surgeon named Dr. Robert O. Becker, M.D. began his groundbreaking research at Syracuse Medical University, which would lead to the widespread re-discovery of silver as an effective antimicrobial substance.


He had been attempting to demonstrate his theory that small micro-currents of electricity could be used to make stubborn bone fractures heal, if electrodes could be temporarily surgically implanted into the fractures.


During the course of his experiments, he began using silver electrodes in order to take advantage of silver’s well-known propensity to conduct electricity. But what he discovered in the process took him completely by surprise.


You see, not only did the micro-currents of electricity trigger the bone fractures to heal just as he had expected, but the tiny, electrically generated silver particles that were driven into the bone and surrounding tissue from the silver electrodes healed ALL nearby infections as well.


Even rare and potentially deadly bone infections such as osteomyelitis were rapidly healed! Dr. Becker later concluded in his best-selling book The Body Electric:


“What we have done was rediscover the fact that silver kills bacteria, a fact which had actually been known for centuries …


…All of the organisms we tested were sensitive to the electrically generated silver ion, including some that were resistant to all known antibiotics…In no case were any undesirable side effects of the silver treatment apparent.”


Yes, indeed. Dr. Becker had re-discovered a fact that medical researchers of old had once known, but that had become lost to medicine ever since the age of prescription antibiotic drugs had been ushered in by the global pharmaceutical conglomerates during the 1940’s.


He had re-discovered the fact that silver – one of the world’s oldest and most powerful natural antibiotic substances – could kill just about any pathogen exposed to it. Even the most virulent of pathogens succumb to it with ease!


Since that time, colloidal silver has once again become the world’s most popular and effective natural antibiotic substance.

* * * * *


As Harvard educated Dr. Jonathan Wright, M.D., of the famous Tahoma Clinic in Washington State has written:

“Silver attacks all three of the germ’s vulnerable targets at once.

First, the silver ions easily rupture a germ’s outer membrane when present in the right amounts, causing the germ’s vital internal components to be exposed in the bloodstream to our white blood cells.

 While the white blood cells attack the internal components, the micro-particulate silver continues to destroy these vital internal components by cutting up vital enzymes.

 The silver ions then easily attack the germ’s third vulnerable target: its delicate gene pool.

 Silver ions have the ability to reach into the nucleus of the germ, where its gene pool is located. Once they combine with the genes, the genes become paralyzed, and the germ cannot replicate itself.”

* * * * *



As Dr. Herbert Slavin, M.D., founder and director of the Institute for Advanced Medicine in Lauderhill, Florida has stated:

“…Colloidal silver is emerging as the new antimicrobial wonder in dealing with bacterial as well as, yes, viral conditions too, both in medicine and in industry… 

Colloidal silver was actually a commonly-used antimicrobial 100 years ago, before the advent of modern antibiotics, which only address bacteria and are becoming largely obsolete while posing risks related to resistant super-germs. 

Colloidal silver is increasingly being recognized for its broad-spectrum antimicrobial qualities and the fact that it presents virtually none of the side-effects related to antibiotics.”

* * * * *


As Dr. Joseph Weissman, M.D., board certified Immunologist and Assistant Clinical Professor at the University of California Medical School has stated:

“Today, many antibiotics are losing the battle with germs. 

Fortunately, the best germ killer, which was discovered over 2,000 years ago, is finally getting the proper attention from medical science – natural silver. 

I sincerely recommend that everyone have electrically generated colloidal silver in their home as an antiseptic, antibacterial and antifungal agent.”

* * * * *

And as biochemist James South, MA has written:

“…Electrically-generated colloidal silver [Ag(e)] has been shown to kill dozens of bacteria, including Providencia stuartii, a germ already resistant in the 1970’s to all antibiotics except amikacin, as well as two strains of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacter cloacae that were isolated from burn patients…

… It has also proved adept at killing various yeast/fungus species at very low silver concentrations, including Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis, Torulopsis glabrata and Aspergillus niger. 

Electrically-generated colloidal silver has also been shown to kill cysts of the common water-borne protozoal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. It has also killed the protozoa Paramecium when exposed to 2.2 ppm silver, as well as the protozoa Varicella at 5.9 ppm. 

 * * * * *

The most amazing case of colloidal silver usage which I’ve had personal knowledge involved an 83 year old woman who was suffering severe septicemia (infectious blood poisoning). 

Her doctors were unable to control the raging infection and had sent her home, expecting her death in 48-72 hours. 

Her husband contacted an intermediary, through whom I recommended trying colloidal silver. The woman was immediately put on one tablespoon of 5 ppm colloidal silver three times daily. 

Within 24 hours her septicemia began to disappear, and within 48 hours her septicemic crisis was over, and she did not die as expected.”


Where to Get Colloidal Silver


Electrically generated colloidal silver can be purchased today in nearly any well-stocked health food store.


But costs can be a bit on the exorbitant side – as much as $20 to $30 for a tiny four-ounce bottle of this safe, natural, healing and infection-fighting substance.


Thankfully, you don’t have to pay those exorbitant health food store prices.  Indeed, you can make your own high-quality electrically-generated colloidal silver, quickly and easily, with a simple device called a Micro-Particle Colloidal Silver Generator from The Silver Edge.


The low-voltage Micro-Particle Colloidal Silver Generator is based on the ground-breaking work of Dr. Robert O. Becker, M.D.


And it allows you to make your own high-quality colloidal silver in the comfort and privacy of your own home, and for less than 36 cents a quart!

Learn more about making your own high-quality colloidal silver with a brand new Micro-Particle Colloidal Silver Generator from The Silver Edge, by clicking the link in this sentence.


Yours for the safe, sane and responsible use of colloidal silver,

Steve Barwick, author
The Ultimate Colloidal Silver Manual

7 Deadly Microbes Destroyed by Colloidal Silver

7 Deadly Microbes Destroyed by Colloidal Silver 

at Very Low Concentrations: Study

A 2011 study demonstrates that very low concentrations of colloidal silver produced “pronounced antibacterial effect” against six well-known and potentially deadly disease-causing microbes, and even against one microbe used to simulate anthrax in germ warfare tests. 

What does this mean to you?  It means colloidal silver can help protect you and your family against six of the most common disease-causing microbes known to man – microbes that produce millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths every single year.  What’s more, colloidal silver may well protect against deadly germ warfare pathogens, as well.   


Read my short article below to learn which well-known – and sometimes deadly — disease-causing microbes have been clinically proven to be eradicated by colloidal silver in lab studies, even at extremely low concentrations, and why this information is so important for you to know…


Hi, Steve Barwick here, for  TheSilverEdge.com


In a clinical study published in the Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, researchers from the Metallurgical and Material Science Engineering Department at Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey documented that colloidal silver demonstrated a pronounced antibacterial effect against seven pathogens.


What’s more, the colloidal silver evidenced this pronounced antibacterial effect in very low concentrations, i.e., 2-4 ppm.


The seven pathogens tested were:

·      Staphylococcus aureus

.      Escherichia coli

·      Candida albicans

·      Salmonella typhimurium

·      Pseudomonas aeruginosa

·      Klebsiella pneumoniae

·      Bacillus subtilis


Silver:  A Noble Metal

One of the most interesting aspects of the above-linked study, for me, is that the researchers correctly refer to silver as a “noble metal,” rather than a “heavy metal.” 


The term “noble metal” is the correct scientific nomenclature for silver.  After all, silver is in the same family of metals as platinum, palladium and gold (all noble metals) and NOT in the family of metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt and arsenic, which are known as the “heavy metals”.


Unfortunately, unscrupulous groups and individuals who are known naysayers of colloidal silver continue to refer to silver as a “heavy metal” – this, as a sensationalistic means of scaring people into believing it’s a cumulative toxic poison, when it is not.


Why Bacillus Subtillis?

Another interesting thing is that the researchers in the above-linked study tested colloidal silver against six well-known, disease-causing microbes, plus one relatively non-pathogenic microbe known asBacillus subtilis.

The researchers don’t explain why they included Bacillus subtilis among the bacteria tested, as it is generally considered to be a benign microbe except in cases of immuno-compromised individuals.

While Bacillus subtilis has been implicated in rare cases of eye infection, meningitis and bacteremia, as well as some cases of nosocomial infection (i.e., of surgical wounds in hospitals), it’s actually a common soil bacteria that’s considered to be ubiquitous in the environment, and generally harmless.

However, the unusual hardiness of this microbe may have been the reason it was included in the study, as it is considered to be very difficult to kill.

You see, although relatively harmless, Bacillus subtilis has also been used as a “simulant” in germ warfare studies for its first cousin, Bacillus anthracis – the deadly anthrax pathogen.

In other words, Bacillus subtilis is generally thought to be as difficult to kill as anthrax. According to one researcher, Bacillus subtilis has many of the same protective characteristics as the deadly anthrax pathogen:


Like anthrax, Bacillus subtilis has the capability to become dormant. It does this by producing endospores – a kind of armour plating, which makes it impervious to temperature variations, desiccation, ultra-violet light, starvation and some disinfectants.”


Apparently, it’s the formation of these endospores that gives Bacillus subtilis its unusual resistance to toxic chemicals and physical agents, including common disinfectants.

Demonstrating that colloidal silver easily stops Bacillus subtils in its tracks is essentially the equivalent of demonstrating that it can also stop anthrax or other serious and difficult-to-kill pathogens, as well.

Indeed, in the book The Hot Zone, author Richard Preston tells the true story of how the U.S. Army stopped a deadly Ebola outbreak at a research facility using formaldehyde gas.  Not wanting to risk lives testing for the presence of Ebola, they first inoculated the facility with Bacillus subtilis, knowing how extremely difficult it is to kill.

After releasing the formaldehyde gas into the facility for three days, they then tested for signs of liveBacillus subtilis, and found none.  Therefore, they concluded, the deadly Ebola was gone, too.  And of course, it was.

Now, researchers have demonstrated that colloidal silver – even in very small concentrations — is also effective against Bacillus subtilis.

You can learn more about the use of colloidal silver for deadly germ warfare pathogens in my previous article, Colloidal Silver and Biological Warfare.


Colloidal Silver Effective Against “All Tested Microbes”

According to the researchers, concentrations as low as 2-4 ppm demonstrated “pronounced antibacterial effect” against the seven pathogens tested.

 The researchers concluded that, “all seven tested microorganisms were completely inhibited at the concentration of 2-4 μg/ml of nano silver.” (That’s a mere 2 to 4 ppm colloidal silver.)

 While these were admittedly test tube studies, and not human studies, this research demonstrates the fact that very low concentrations of colloidal silver are indeed able to kill some of today’s most prevalent and serious disease-causing pathogens, as well as one of the most extremely hardy and difficult-to-kill of all microbes, Bacillus subtilis.


Not a Peep…

Colloidal silver’s astonishing and clinically proven ability to destroy these well-known disease-causing pathogens at very low concentrations should be headline news around the world.

But thanks to Big Pharma’s government-enforced lock on prescription antibiotic drugs, you’ve probably never heard a peep about this study, or about any of the other dozens of clinical studies on colloidal silver that have amply demonstrated its undeniable infection-fighting benefits.

According to the Committee to Reduce Infection Deaths, the rate of infections striking Americans in hospitals alone is now astronomical:

“The CDC claims that 1.7 million people contract infections in U.S. hospitals each year. In fact, the truth is several times that number.

The proof is in the data. One of the fastest growing infections is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a superbug that doesn’t respond to most antibiotics.

In 1993, there were fewer than 2,000 MRSA infections in U.S. hospitals. By 2005, the figure had shot up to 368,000 according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

By June, 2007, 2.4 percent of all patients had MRSA infections, according to the largest study of its kind, which was published in theAmerican Journal of Infection Control. That would mean 880,000 victims a year.

That’s from one superbug. Imagine the number of infections from bacteria of all kinds.”

I might add, imagine the number of infections if you included those that have taken place outside of the hospital environment, as well as inside.

We are talking staggering numbers of annual infections that would make your head spin.

So you’d think that medical authorities would be screaming from the rooftops about the studies demonstrating colloidal silver to be effective againstE. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiela pneumonia.

After all, these six pathogens cause some of the most serious and commonly acquired of all infections, costing hundreds of billions of dollars per year in health care and leaving tens of thousands of people dead in their wakes.

But you won’t hear a word on the nightly news about the clinically proven ability of colloidal silver to kill these pathogens.  And that means you have to educate yourself.


Learn More…

Here’s links to a handful of short articles on colloidal silver and its proven ability to decimate the six disease-causing pathogens discussed above:

E. coli is well-known as one of the most common food poisoning pathogens in the world today, resulting in 265,000 illnesses and about 100 deaths annually in the U.S. alone. For more information on using colloidal silver against E. coli, click the link.

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of skin infections, and is well-known for its ability to mutate into MRSA, the potentially deadly form of Staph which kills up to 93,000 people per year in the U.S. alone – more than all annual AIDS mortalities. For more information on using colloidal silver against Staphylococcus aureus/MRSA, click the link.


  • Candida albicans is the well-known fungal pathogen normally found in small numbers in the human body, but that can easily grow out-of-control under certain conditions. It can affect the skin, genitals, throat, mouth and even become blood-borne, at which point it has a mortality rate of approximately 40%, resulting in close to 40,000 deaths per year.  For more information on using colloidal silver against Candidaalbicans, click the link.


  • Salmonella typhimurium is another well-known food poisoning pathogen infecting up to one million people per year in the U.S., resulting in 20,000 hospitalizations and causing symptoms ranging from vomiting, diarrhea and severe abdominal pain to death in severe cases (up to 400 deaths per year). For more information on using colloidal silver against Salmonella typhimurium, click the link.


  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of lung infections and burn infections, and one of the most frequent causes of death in lung disease and among burn victims, with mortality rates ranging between 18% and 61% depending upon the microbial strain and the site of infection. For more information on using colloidal silver against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, click the link.


  • Klebsielapneumonia is found in the mouth, skin and intestines, but can also infect the lungs, causing pneumonia and destroying lung tissue, leading to death.  The mortality rate can be as high as 50%.  This microbe can also mutate into CRKP – the latest of the deadly super-pathogens medical science is having trouble controlling with prescription antibiotic drugs.  For more information on using colloidal silver against Klebsiella pneumonia, click the link.


It’s up to you to educate yourself about the remarkable infection-fighting qualities of colloidal silver against some of today’s most common and potentially deadly pathogens.  No one is going to do it for you.  So read the above articles when you get a chance.  You can’t count on the news media to tell you.  And you certainly can’t count on Big Pharma.

 * * * * *

Colloidal Silver is available in South Africa here:


Colloidal Silver (1 litre)

* * * * *

How People Use Colloidal Silver

To learn more about how people just like you are already using colloidal silver successfully to help keep their families safe and infection-free, be sure to read the colloidal silver testimonials page at TheSilverEdge.com website.

There, you’ll learn from hundreds of experienced colloidal silver users exactly how they’ve used colloidal silver to deal with MRSA infections, herpes infections, sore throats, eye infections, prostate infections, skin cancer, Candida yeast infections, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome…

…infected cuts and burns, Poison Ivy, Swine Flu, sinus infections, infected boils, earaches, pet infections, viral infections, upper respiratory infections, low energy levels, diarrhea, allergies, infected abscesses, gum disease, tinnitus, arthritis, Pink Eye, facial rash…

…infected teeth and root canals, colitis, mononucleosis, toenail fungus, athlete’s foot, bad breath, body odors, so-called “incurable” cancers such as renal carcinoma and others, urinary tract infections, catheter and Indiana Pouch infections…

…canker sores, insomnia, depression, dandruff, psoriasis, infectious peritonitis, antibiotic-resistant pneumonia, and yes, way more than I could list in such a short article!

And if you’re already convinced that colloidal silver should be an important part of your natural health arsenal against infection and disease, then be sure to learn how to make your own high-quality colloidal silver, in the comfort and privacy of your own home, for less than 36 cents a quart.  Just click the link in this paragraph.


Meanwhile, I’ll be back next week with another great article on colloidal silver…


Yours for the safe, sane and responsible use of colloidal silver,

Steve Barwick, author
The Ultimate Colloidal Silver Manual


Fulvic Acid Benefits

BIO-SIL has Fulvic Acid capsules now available at this link :


Fulvic Acid 90 capsules



Fulvic Acid Benefits

Fulvic Acid: a Substance Vital to Human Health

Table of Contents


[Photo of a flask of fulvic solution]Fulvic acid is rapidly being recognized as one of the key elements in many outstanding health and scientific breakthroughs of the 21st century. More and more scientists and doctors throughout the world are discovering fulvic acid, and are recognizing its extraordinary potential. Interest in the medical community has been escalating rapidly.

In the past only very small amounts of fulvic acid had been available for scientific testing. Most of the studies to date have been done on plant cells. In reviewing and evaluating these reports, it is important to bear in mind that leading scientists like Roger J. Williams, recognize and agree with the following fact:

“the building blocks present in the metabolic machinery of human beings are, in the great majority of cases, exactly the same as the building blocks contained in the metabolic machinery of other organisms of extremely different types.”

Roger J. Williams

Although the majority of research and experimentation that has been done on fulvic acid is in relation to plants, it is important to realize that human beings have been ingesting fulvic acid complexes regularly for over 60 years in supplemental form, and for thousands of years from natural food and plant sources. The new discoveries involving fulvic acid are very similar in nature to the recent important discoveries of valuable phytochemicals in vegetables that have always existed, but were hitherto unknown. Fulvic acid has always occurred naturally in organic plants and soils, yet its recent discovery and tremendous value is now just beginning to be recognized.

Accumulating testimonials from regular users continue to substantiate the fact that the same beneficial properties related to plant studies and cells, hold true in relation to animals and humans as well. Clinical studies on animals and humans are beginnings, and updated information will be forthcoming. Preliminary findings show that the most prominent diseases and health problems of our day have been dramatically effected in positive ways by supplementation or treatment with fulvic acid and other preparations enhanced, extracted, or chelated using fulvic acid.

Uses beneficial to humans are not the only focus here either. The known agricultural benefits have enormous potential to heal soils of the world. Yet the majority of the agricultural community is virtually unaware of the implications. Industrial use for treatment of sewage and landfill wasted, neutralization of radioactive and toxic wastes, and a myriad of other uses are just beginnings to be realized. Fulvic acid has already been found to have tremendous potential.

Fulvic Acid Major Attributes

One of Nature’s Most Powerful Organic Electrolytes[1]

As created by nature, organic fulvic acids are created by soil-based micro-organisms(“SBO’s”) to make minerals and other nutrients assimilable by plants. ( The SBO’s consume decayed prehistoric plant matter in humate deposits and excrete the substance known as “fulvic acid”, or “fulvic acids”.)
The complex photosynthetic reactions – produced in all plants – produce the nutritional components needed for all the various parts of the plants. Muco-polysaccharides (a class of carbohydryates such as starches and cellulose) flow throughout the plant as nourishment and some of this is returned to the roots where the soil-based micro-organisms are re-nourished to produce additional Fulvic Acid which combines with minerals and other nutrients in the soil to continue the cycle. Fulvic acids are a biologically active mixture of weak aliphatic* and aromatic organic acids which are soluble in water and all pH conditions (acidic, neutral, and alkaline). The size of fulvic acids are smaller (and of lower molecular weight) than that of humic acids, with molecular weights which range from approximately 1,500 or less”. Fulvic acid is an organic natural electrolyte that can balance and energize biological properties it comes into contact with [2]. An electrolyte is a substance that is soluble in water or other appropriate medium that is capable of conducting electrical current. [3]

The power of an electrolyte has been shown in repeated tests on animal cells (giant amoebae), to be able to restore life in what researchers termed “a beautiful demonstration” and “astonishing.” When the electrolyte potential was taken away during the test, the cell ruptured and disintegrated into the surrounding fluid causing death. Upon reintroducing electrical potential the cell reconstructed and became active and healthy.[4]

It was also determined from these same studies, that similar results could be expected of the progressive weakness among humans that results from unchecked hemorrhage, overwhelming emotional stress, uncontrolled infections, unbalanced diet, prolonged loss of sleep, and surgical shock. These examples are all accompanied by a steady decrease in electrical potential that can eventually be reduced to zero at death. These studies show convincingly that that the physical well being of plants, animals, and humans is determined by proper electrical potential.[5]

Fulvic acid has proven to be a powerful organic electrolyte, serving to balance cell life. If the individual cell is restored to its normal chemical balance and thereby in turn its electrical potential, we have given life where death and disintegration would normally occur within plant and animal cells.[6] Fulvic acid has the outstanding ability to accomplish this objective in numerous ways. [7]

Promotes Electrochemical Balance As Donor Or Receptor

Fulvic acid is available at times as an electron donor and at other times as an electron acceptor, based on the cell’s requirements for balance.[8] One of the reactions that occurs is always an oxidation reaction in which the chemical species loses electrons as a donor. The other reaction is a reduction in which the active species gains electrons as an acceptor.[9] A recent study of the binding of a donor molecule to fulvic acid in solution revealed direct evidence for donor-acceptor charge-transfer mechanisms. [10] Trace minerals in the fulvic acid electrolyte could also be beneficial in this process by serving as electrodes.[11]

One Of The Most Powerful Natural Free Radical Scavengers & Antioxidants Known.[12]

Free radicals of fulvic acid behave as electron donors or acceptors, depending upon the need for balance in the situation. [13] Fulvic acid can in the same way take part in oxidation-reduction reactions with transition metals.[14]

Complexes & Dissolves Minerals & Trace Elements[15]

Fulvic acid is especially active in dissolving minerals and metals when in solution with water. The metallic minerals simply dissolve into ionic form, and disappear into the fulvic structure becoming bio-chemically reactive and mobile. The fulvic acid actually transforms these minerals and metals into elaborate fulvic acid molecular complexes that have vastly different characteristics from their previous metallic mineral form. Fulvic acid is nature’s way of “chelating” metallic minerals, turning them into readily absorbable bio-available forms. Fulvic acid also has the unique ability to weather and dissolve silica that it comes into contact with.

Enhances Nutrients[16]

Fulvic acid enhances the availability of nutrients and makes them more readily absorbable. It also allows minerals to regenerate and prolongs the residence time of essential nutrients. It prepares nutrients to react with cells. It allows nutrients to inter-react with one another, breaking them down into the simplest ionic forms chelated by the fulvic acid electrolyte.

Transports Nutrients[17]

Fulvic acid readily complexes with minerals and metals making them available to plant roots and easily absorbable through cell walls. It makes minerals such as iron, that are not usually very mobile, easily transported through plant structures. Fulvic acids also dissolve and transport vitamins, coenzymes, auxins, hormones, and natural antibiotics[18] that are generally found throughout the soil, making them available. These substances are effective in stimulating even more vigorous and healthy growth.[19] These substances are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in decomposing vegetation in the soil. It has been determined that all known vitamins can be present in healthy soil[20] Plants manufacture many of their own vitamins, yet these from the soil further supplement the plant. Upon ingestion these nutrients are easily absorbed by animals and humans, due to the fact that they are in the perfect natural plant form as nature intends. Fulvic acid can often transport many times its weight in dissolved minerals and elements.[21]

Catalyzes Enzyme Reactions[22]

Fulvic acid has close association with enzymes.[23] It increases activity of enzymes, and especially influences respiratory catalysts. Fulvic acids increase the activity of several enzymes including alkaline phosphates, transaminase, and invertase.

Increases Assimilation[24]

Fulvic acid metal organic complexes are of a low molecular weight[25], and because of this they are also of low molecular size, and are capable of a high degree of penetration into cells. Fulvic acid complexes and chelates are able to readily pass through semi-permeable membranes such as cell walls. Yet it is important to note that it has also been determined that fulvic acids not only have the ability to transport nutrients through cell membranes, they also have the ability to sensitize cell membranes and various physiological the membranes and various physiological functions as well.[26]

Stimulates Metabolism[27]

Fulvic acid appears to cause the genetic mechanism of plants to function at a higher level. It has been concluded that any means by which plant cells are exposed to fulvic acid can improve growth.[28] Oxygen is absorbed more intensely in the presence of fulvic acids.[29] Fulvic acid aids in penetrating roots and then quickly transports to the shoots of plants.[30] Fulvic acid relieves oxygen deficiency and increases the vital activity of cells. Fulvic acids change the pattern of the metabolism of carbohydrates, resulting in an accumulation of soluble sugars. These soluble sugars increase the pressure of osmosis inside the cell wall and enable plants to withstand wilting. Fulvic acid enhances growth and may stimulate the immune system.[31]

Detoxifies Pollutants[32]

An important aspect of humic substances is related to their sorptive interaction with environmental chemicals, either before or after they reach concentrations toxic to living organisms.[33] The toxic herbicide known as “Paraquat” is rapidly detoxified by humic substances (fulvic acids).[34] Fulvic acids have a special function with respect to the demise of organic compounds applied to soil as pesticides.[35] It has been established that fulvic acid is vital in helping to form new species of metal ions, binding with organic pollutants such as pesticides and herbicides, and catalyzing the breakdown of toxic pollutants. Radioactive substances react rapidly with fulvic acid, and only a brief time is required for equilibrium to be reached.[36] All radioactive elements are capable of reacting with fulvic acid and thus forming organo-metal complexes of different adsorptive stability and solubility.

Dissolves Silica

Fulvic acids are especially important because of their ability to complex or chelate metal ions and interact with silica.[37] It has been shown that these interactions may increase the concentrations of metal ions and silica found in water solutions to levels that are far in excess of their assumed dissolution ability.[38]

Synthesizes Or Transmutates Minerals[39]

Fulvic acid complexes have the ability to bio-react one with another, and also inter-react with cells to synthesize or transmutate new mineral compounds. The transmutation of vegetal silica and magnesium to form calcium in animal and human bones is a typical example of new synthesis of minerals.[40] (See Fulvic Acid & Vegetal Silica beginning on page-40.)

Enhances Cell Division and Elongation[41]

Fulvic acid stimulates and balances cells, creating optimum growth and replication conditions.

Enhances the Permeability of Cell Membranes[42]

Fulvic acids act as specific cell sensitizing agents and enhance the permeability of the cell membrane.[43]

Increases Metabolism Of Proteins[44]

Fulvic acid intensifies the metabolism of proteins, RNA, and DNA.[45] It has been found that fulvic acid definitely increases DNA contents in cells,[46] and also increases and enhances the rate of RNA syntheses.[47]

Catalyzes Vitamins Within The Cell[48]

Fulvic acid has the ability to complex vitamins into its structure, where they are presented to the cell in combination with complexed minerals. In this perfect natural condition, they are able to be catalyzed and utilized by the cell. In absence of adequate trace minerals, vitamins are unable to perform their proper function.

Chelates All Monovalent and Divalent Elements To Which It Is Exposed

Fulvic acid has the power to form stable water soluble complexes with monovalent, divalent, trivalent, and ployvalent metal ions. It can aid the actual movement of metal ions that are normally difficult to mobilize or transport.[49] Fulvic acids are excellent natural chelators and cation exchangers, and are vitally important in the nutrition of cells.

Fulvic Acid, Origin and Overview

In the Beginning

In the beginning the Earth was blessed with optimum organic growing conditions. The soil had a wealth of minerals, trace elements, and rich humus soil teaming with microbes. The Earth’s minerals had not yet leached and eroded into the seas, and because of that, the soil was exceptionally fertile. The vegetation was very lush and abundant, as is evidenced by ancient remains that we know were formed into coal and oil deposits.

Humic Deposits

But there have been found other most unusual remains that geologists call humic deposits. They also came from that ancient lush vegetation. These humic deposits never did turn into oil or coal, because they were not exposed to the same tremendous pressures, and were very near the surface where there was abundant microbial activity. These deposits are quite rare and can be found in various areas of the world. Some of these deposits are exceedingly rich in a little known substance called fulvic acid.

Fulvic Acid

Fulvic acid has been discovered to be one of the most important natural miracles related to life itself. It is an acid[50] created in extremely small amounts by the action of millions of beneficial microbes, working on decaying plant matter in a soil environment with adequate oxygen. [51] Fulvic acid is part of the humic structure in rich composting soil. Fulvic acids contain a vast amount of naturally occuring bio-chemicals, supercharged antioxidants, free-radical scavengers, super oxide dismutases (“SOD”), nutrients, enzymes, hormones, amino acids, natural antibiotics, natural antivirals, and natural fungicides. It is of low molecular weight[52] and is biologically very active. Because of its low melecular weight, it has the necessity and ability to readily bond minerals and elements into its molcular structure causing them to dissolve and become mobilized fulvic complexes. Fulvic acid from humic (or humate) deposits usually carries 60 or more minerals and trace elements dissolved into its molecular complexes. These are then in ideal natural form to be absorbed and interact with living cells.[53] Plants roots and cells readily absorb high amounts of fulvic acid, and maintain it in their structure.[54] In fact it has been discovered that these fulvic acid complexes are absolutely essential for plants to be healthy.[55]

Microbial Action

We know that ancient plant life had ample fulvic acid as is evidenced by the exceedingly rich and unusual deposits that are located in various areas of the world. This fulvic acid in these deposits came from massive amounts of vegetation and its further decomposition by microbes. Fulvic acid is then a naturally occurring organic substance that comes entirely from microbial action on decomposing plants, plants themselves, or ancient deposits of plant origin.

Fulvic Acid is Lacking in Food Crops

It seems obvious that most of the agricultural and food crops of today would also contain adequate amounts or at least some fulvic acid and its related mineral complexes, but few do. As human beings it would be reasonable to assume that we should be consuming fulvic acid complexes in the plants we eat, and consequently have fulvic acid in our systems. It is obvious that this is the way nature intended it. But this not the case, nor has it been for a long time.

Our soils are sick from poor agricultural practices, pesticides, chemical fertilizers (see page 43 for the most revealing story of the “Father of N-P-K”), erosion, and mineral depletion,[56] as well as sterile conditions brought on by these practices, that prohibit microbial activity. Because of this our plants are sick, containing very little nutrition, especially minerals. For generations adequate fulvic acid that should have been contained in the plants we eat has been missing from our diets, yet it is essential for our cell metabolism. Scientists have found that nutritionally we need 90 different nutrients in our diets. Over 60 of these are minerals and trace elements. We are simply not getting them today from the plants we eat.

Re-mineralization of soils would be of little benefit without fulvic acid and return to better farming practices. Re-mineralization of our bodies without the fulvic acid that should be contained in the plants we eat, has proven just as useless. People are sick with degenerative and deficiency related diseases now more than ever. With fulvic acid supplementation and return to proper diet and farming practices these situations have the potential to be reversed.

Science & Medicine

Fulvic acid is still not well known or understood by most of the scientific[57] or medical community. Fulvic acids have not been able to be synthesized by chemists[58], and are unable to be clearly defined[59] because of their extremely complex nature. This perplexity warrants little opportunity for science or medicine to exploit fulvic acid, or profit from new patents. Accumulating claims of encouraging health benefits by the public have been simply remarkable. Many of these health assertions have also shown that they could be disease preventative in nature and dramatically increase longevity. This demonstrates that fulvic acid could potentially pose a substantial long range threat to the future of pharmaceutical companies, medical doctors, and health professionals. It is good news for the public and the alternative health industry. Yet until now, fulvic acid has been entirely overlooked or misunderstood by the majority of alternative health concerns as well.

Benefits of Fulvic Acid

Some scientists have recently been studying fulvic acid, and have come up some amazing facts. They tell us that fulvic acid is one of the finest natural electrolytes known to man. It helps with human enzyme production, hormone structures, and is necessary for the utilization of vitamins. It has been found to be essential to living cells in carrying on metabolic process. It maintains the ideal environment[60] for dissolved mineral complexes, elements, and cells to bio-react electrically with one another causing electron transfer, catalytic reactions, and transmutations into new minerals.[61] It is also one of the most powerful natural antioxidants and free radical scavengers known. It has the unique ability to react with both negatively and positively charged unpaired electrons and render free radicals harmless. It can either alter them into new useable compounds or eliminate them as waste. Fulvic acid can similarly scavenge heavy metals and detoxify pollutants. Fulvic acid helps to correct cell imbalances.

Fulvic Acid Mineral Complexes are Better than True Colloidal Minerals[62]

You may have heard all the excitement about colloidal minerals lately. But actual true colloidal minerals don’t really work (see further information beginning page 31). It is the fulvic acid in conjunction with the minerals that works! colloidal minerals themselves are not readily useable by cells. Until now, the alternative health community has praised the virtues of colloidal minerals. Most so called colloidal mineral preparations have fulvic acid in them, yet it may be of low or inconsistent volume or stability, and are usually incorrectly labeled as colloidal by suppliers. These dealers are obviously totally unaware of fulvic acid or its values.

Buyers beware! Some dealers are marketing highly diluted or counterfeit preparations. It has been determined that some preparations may have had sulfuric acid or other acids added to the extraction vats to help them increase the dissolved solid content. Some of the preparations, especially those coming from certain ancient lake beds could be very unsafe. True colloidal minerals are still in metallic form only smaller in size. To discern if a preparation is truly colloidal you can obtain a laser penlight from Radio Shack for about $20. A simple laser test will show a beam of light as visible in passing through a colloidal mineral solution (unless it has nothing in it), because the light is reflecting off of solids. A solution with an adequate level of stabilized fulvic acid containing the very same minerals shows no visible beam because the minerals are dissolved into a molecular fulvic complex. In fact the solution can contain much higher mineral concentration[63] when dissolved [64] into fulvic acid. [65] It is most important to realize that fulvic acid is the perfect vehicle provided and intended by nature for transport of minerals to living cells. [66] If a product has fulvic acid in it you can usually tell by the unusual acidic taste that is unique only to fulvic acids.

Hidden Treasures

Good quality fulvic acid from humic deposits has over 60 different mineral and trace element complexes that naturally occur along with the fulvic acid. These complexes are hidden treasures of the past, in the perfect plant form, just as nature provides. These trace minerals are an additional bonus to the miracle of fulvic acid. These fulvic complexes are hundreds of times smaller than living cells, and are amazingly absorbable by them. It is most important to know that fulvic acid has the unique ability to enhance, potentiate, and increase absorption of many other compounds such as vitamins, herbs, minerals, tinctures, and foods with which it is combined. Fulvic acid is one of natures miracles of unparalleled proportion!

Fulvic Acids Further Defined

Fulvic Acids: What are They? Where Do They Come From? What Can They Do? Why Do We Need Them?

Though virtually unknown to the layman, there is perhaps no substance more vital to life, (with the possible exception of oxygen and water) than the biologically derived compounds known as HUMIC and FULVIC ACIDS. Fulvic acids enter into all life processes within plants and animals and as such wears many hats. When necessary; they act as “free radical”[67] scavengers, supply vital electrolytes,[68] enhance and transport nutrients,[69] make water wetter, [70] catalyze enzyme reactions,[71] increase assimilation, [72] stimulate metabolism, [73] chelate and humanize essential major and trace elements,[74] and demonstrate amazing capacity for electrochemical balance.[75]

Unknown Fulvic

Despite the fact that scientists worldwide have published thousands of papers relative to “fulvic acids” and their effect on living matter, they have received limited public exposure because of the inability to produce and commercialize these substances. Researchers consider water extracts of 30 parts per million (ppm) as being a high concentration. For obvious reasons the knowledge of fulvic acids have been confined primarily to a small specialized sector of the scientific community.

How Are They Formed

Fulvic acid is a derivative of microbial degradation of humic substances. Microorganisms are essential to the process.[76] Each gram of healthy top soil has in excess of four billion microorganisms that participate in manufacturing bio-chemicals essential to healthy plants[77] and animals. If they were to fail our lives would cease. A better perspective of their importance can be gained by looking at the work they do. Microorganism activity in preparing one acre of top soil, expends the equivalent energy of 10,000 people doing the same amount of work in the same amount of time.[78]

What Humic Substances Do in the Soil

Scientists claim organic substances stimulate plant cellular growth and division, including auxin type reactions.[79] They enhance plant circulatory systems and promote optimum plant respiration[80] and transportation systems.[81] They decrease plant stress and premature deterioration.[82] They dramatically improve seed germination and promote greater fibrous root growth.[83] They increase the size and numbers of legume root nodules and increase resistance to drought and insect infestation.[84]

The Fulvic Plant Miracle[85]

In addition to duplicating many of the positive functions of humic acid, fulvic acid will:

  • Stimulate plant metabolism
  • Give positive effect on plant RNA & DNA
  • Act as a catalyst in plant respiration
  • Increase metabolism of proteins
  • Increase activity of multiple enzymes[86]
  • Enhances the permeability of cell membranes
  • Enhance cell division and cell elongation
  • Aid Chlorophyll synthesis
  • Increase drought tolerance, and prevent wilting[87]
  • Increase crop yields
  • Assist denitrification by microbes
  • Buffer soil pH
  • Contribute electrochemical balance as a donor or an acceptor
  • Synthesize new minerals
  • Chemically weather inorganic substances[88]
  • Decompose silica to release essential mineral nutrients[89]
  • Detoxify various pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, etc.)

The Energy Continuum (illustration)


fulvic acid

Plants (Photosyntiesis*)

fulvic acid

Animals – Bio Mass

fulvic acid


(Stored energy for future use)

Oil and Gas


fulvic acid

Microbes (Humification* – microbial decomposition)

fulvic acid

Humic and Fulvic Acids (Final energy product sustaining both plants and animals)


Who and What Are We?[90]

Biologically as humans we consist of varying amounts of the following major and minor elements:

  • Calcium
  • Iodine
  • Potassium
  • Iron
  • Phosphorous
  • Hydrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Chlorine
  • Sulfur
  • Carbon
  • Magnesium

Plus traces of aluminum, bromine, cobalt, copper, fluorine, manganese, nickel, silicon, sodium, zinc, and all the additionl (as yet) undiscovered trace element needs being added to the list as our knowledge increase.

The Body Cellular

The elements we are composed of (plus or minus a few billion) are components of approximately 60 trillion cells. An average cell contains about 1 quadrillion molecules, which is about 10,000 times as many molecules as the milky way has stars. Individual cells when properly nourished, are capable of producing many of their own amino acids, enzymes, and other factors necessary for all metabolic processes. Each cell, in addition to other processes, burns its own energy, maintains itself, manufactures its own enzymes, creates its own proteins, and duplicates itself.[91] It is essential to understand that the total metabolism of the body is the sum of the metabolic operations carried on in each individual cell.

Growth & Maintenance Nutrients

Scientists have identified at least 90 growth and maintenance nutrients which must be continuously supplied to the body to sustain healthful life. These growth and maintenance nutrients include amino acids, major and trace minerals, vitamins and other nutritional factors.[92] When these factors are supplied to our cells, the cells then create the building blocks for the total metabolic machinery of our life process. The building blocks present in the metabolic machinery of human beings are (in the great majority of cases) the same as the building blocks contained in the metabolic machinery of other organisms of extremely different types. [93]

Organisms vary in their capacity to produce some of these building blocks internally. Some organisms are capable of producing all amino acids within their cells. Humans can produce all but eight. Some organisms can produce many of the vitamins within their cells. We can only produce one.[94] The very complex processes of all metabolic functions are carried on within the cell. If we fail to supply the cell with the essential growth and maintenance nutrients we will experience a breakdown of these functions. When this breakdown is substantial we have the onset of disease or the manifestation of some related defect.

Nutritional Deficiencies

Total deficiencies in one or more of the growth and maintenance nutrients which human cells need for healthful metabolism is now a rare occurrence, but substantial deficiencies in the growth and maintenance nutrients is a common factor to every degenerative disease we experience.[95]

Sick Soils, Sick Plants, Sick People

All naturally fertile soils contain adequate amounts of humic and fulvic acids produces by resident microbes within the soil. Humic and fulvic acids assist the plant in obtaining its complete nutrition. Our modern agriculture aims at one goal (with few exceptions) which is market. Food quality is sacrificed for food quantity. Since the farmer is paid by the bushel, yield is paramount to nutritional content. In his frantic effort for yield, he has succumbed to the Pied Pipers of agro-chemical companies with products to sell. He is further decoyed by bad advice from county agents and higher schools of learning that protect the “grant” status of moneys received from these same agro-chemical companies, who advocate the application of excessive amount of nitrate fertilizers to the soil. Such practices stun and destroy the indigenous microbial life within the soil. When microbial life is inhibited or destroyed, vital humic and fulvic acids are exhausted.

Gone Are The Minerals

When microbes are depleted from the soils, they are no longer present to convert inorganic minerals into organic minerals needed by plants. Excessive use of nitrate fertilizers inhibits the formation of normal plant proteins and stimulates an over-abundance of unused amino acids that attracts insects.[96] Since pests were created to eat diseased plants this introduces the ideal invironment for increased infestation because of increased insect food supply. The farmers reaction is more pesticides and fungicides to save his infested crop. This in turn inhibits or destroys even more vital microorganisms that are essential to mineral conversions to plant nutrients.

Unsafe Foods

These deficient, pesticide laden products are turned into “cash” which the farmer thinks is the bottom line. Lacking in organic trace elements and other nutritional factors, but long on chemical residues from pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, these nutritionally hollow products end up on the tables of America. Without taste, and deficient in organic minerals and nutrients, we pee, boil and overcook what remains and ask, “Why do I hurt?”

Can Good Foods Be Found?

A very small percentage of the agricultural lands of America are fertile enough to produce nutritious and healthy foods. An honest effort in attempting to select a healthful diet from grocery shelves may be a nutritional disaster. Unless you are fortunate enough to organically grow your own foods, supplementation is a necessity.

The Vitamin Connection

In this century common vitamin deficiency diseases have been reduced dramatically due to our awareness of the role of vitamins in nutrition. New breakthroughs are just beginning to emerge in the use of increased dosages for treatment of some ailments. It should be noted however that vitamins cannot complete their function in the cell’s metabolism without the presence of certain minerals. This may explain the fascinating effects of humic and fulvic acids at work in living organisms. Fulvic acid chelates and binds scores of minerals into a bio-available form use by cells as needed. These trace minerals serve as catalysts to vitamins within the cell.[97] Additionally, fulvic acid is on to the most efficient transporters of vitamins into the cell.

The Enzyme Connection[98]

An enzyme is a catalyst that does not enter into a reaction but speeds up or casues a reaction to take place. Enzymes are complex proteins. The burning of glucose in cells for instance, requires the action of several enzymes, each working on the substrate of the previous reaction. Each cell of the body (when properly nourished) is capable of producing the enzymes needed for complete metabolism.[99] Research has shown that fulvic acid improves enzymatic reactions in cells and produces maximum stimulation of enzyme development.[100] The fulvic acid molecule often contains within its structure coenzymes and important factors which the cells may utilize in stimulation of enzyme reactions and the manufacturing of, and formation of enzymes.[101] Fulvic acid will in all probability, be found to be one of the key factors of enzyme reactions with all living cells.

Free Radicals and Antioxidants

Free radicals are highly reactive molecules or fragments of molecules that contain one or more unpaired electrons.[102] They circulate through the body causing great mischief in bonding to and injuring the tissues. In addition to destroying tissue, they magnify the probability that injured cells will become susceptible to a great many infections and disease, or mutate and cause cancer.

Super Antioxidants

In recent years frantic efforts have been make to locate and isolate compounds with extraordinary affinity for free radicals. Entire industries have evolved around such efforts, with nearly every vendor of health food products offering suitable solutions. Because of the limited public knowledge concerning the great contribution fulvic acid plays as a bi-directional super antioxidant, we need to consider certain facts.

Fulvic Acid and the Free Radical Connection

To gain knowledge of how antioxidants tie up free radicals we must understand their workings, and explode a general misconception. For antioxidant to bind a free radical the antioxidant molecule must have unpaired electrons of equal and opposite charge to that of the unpaired electrons of the free radical. In a sense the free radical scavenger is its self a free radical or it could not mate and neutralize the destructive effects of free radicals.

Who Wears the White Hat

We have found that fulvic acid is a powerful, natural electrolyte that can act as an acceptor or as a donor in the creation of electrochemical balance. If it encounters free radicals with unpaired positive electrons it supplies an equal and opposite negative charge to neutralize the bad effects of the free radicals. Likewise, if the free radicals carry a negative charge, the fulvic acid molecule can supply positive unpaired electrons to nullify that charge.

Antioxidants and Beyond

Being a bio-available chelated molecule that can “also” chelate, fulvic acid wears the white hat. As a refiner and transporter of organic minerals and other cell nutrients it has the ability to turn bad guys into good guys by chelating and humanizing free radicals. Depending upon the chemical makeup of the free radical, they can be incorporated into and become a part of life sustaining bio-available nutrients. They may become an asset instead of a liability. In the event that the chemical makeup of the free radical is of no particular benefit, it is chelated, mobilized, and carried out of the body as a waste product.

Bibliography to Fulvic Free Radical Data

Mowrey, Daniel B., Ph. D. (1993). P.34 Herbal Tonic Therapies. Keats Publishing Inc.

Todd, Gary Price, M.D., (1985)., p.20-24, 113-118, Nutrition Health & Disease. Whitford Press.

Steelenk, C.A., & Tollin, G. (1962). “Biochimica Biophysica Acta”. p.59, 25-34.

Senesi, N., Chen, Y., & Schnitzer, M. (1977). Soil Biology & Biochemistry.

Vaughan, D., Malcolm, R. B., & Ord, 13. G. (1985). Soil Organic Matter & Biological Activity. Dordriecht, Netherlands : Martinus Nijhoff.

Jackson, William R., Ph D. (1993). p. 261-282. Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Condition.Evergreen, Colorado.

The Human Experience

The following public statement was made by the late Dr. Clyde Sandgrin prior to the discovery and naming of active ingredients in humic extract solutions later found to be fulvic acid mineral complexes:

“If I had to choose between the liquid mineral and electricity, electricity would have to go.”

Reported claims of benefits are little short of astonishing. For internal use they are:

  • Increased energy
  • Alleviates anemia
  • Chelates body toxins
  • Reduces high blood pressure
  • Potentizes vitamin & mineral supplements
  • Magnifies the effect of herbal teas and tinctures
  • Chelates all monovalent and divalent metals
  • Is a powerful natural electrolyte
  • Restores electrochemical balance
  • Stimulates body enzyme systems
  • Helps rebuild the immune system

Reported claims of external beneficial use:

  • Treating open wounds
  • Healing burns with minimum pain or scarring
  • Eliminating discoloration due to skin bruises
  • Killing pathogens responsible for athletes foot
  • Acting as a wide spectrum anti-microbial and fungicide
  • Treating rashes and skin irritations
  • Helping to heal cuts and abrasions
  • Helping heal insect bites and spider bites
  • Neutralizing poison ivy and poison oak.

Human Experiences With Fulvic

The Healing and Regenerative Influences of Low Molecular Weight Humic Substances (Fulvic Acid) On Human Tissues and Cells

Tests[103] were conducted by Dr. W. Schlickewei[104] and five associates[105] at the University Hospital in Freiburg, German, on human patients requiring transplantation or replacement of bone during surgery. The transplantation of bone tissue is required in about 15% of all cases of replacement surgery of the locomotor apparatus, and it is generally applied to reconstitute and repair actual defects in bone.

Human donor tissues have become scarce due to special legal requirements and necessary additional testing because such tissues have a high danger of transmitting the HIV virus and hepatitis. There are also obvious disadvantages to using bone grafts from other areas of the same patient’s body because they require a second operation and prolong the length of time in surgery. The only other known substitute source available in large enough quantities for clinical use, was animal bone in the form of inorganic calcium compounds (bovine calcium hydroxyapatirte), and although these were well tolerated by the body, they showed no signs of being resorbed.

Remarkable bone regeneration and resorption characteristics were identified when the animal bone implants were impregnated with a low molecular weight humic substance (fulvic acid) prior to transplant in to patients. The bone implant then became highly osteoconductive, and served the host tissue as a “guide-line” for the deposition of newly developing bone tissue. The same transplant procedure without the fulvic acid showed no signs of regeneration during the course of the experiment.

While on the lookout for a new group of active agents with the ability to promote wound healing, the doctors came across the humic substances. The doctors said that the bone resorption is most easily explained by the known ability of humate to induce the activation of leucocytes. They said that previous experiments had established that the humic substances are able to bind to calcium-containing compounds, stimulate granulocytes, and block the infectivity of the HIV virus.

Summary: In this clinical test and previous experiments, fulvic acid has been shown to activate and stimulate white blood cells, promoting healing, turn inorganic calcium into an organic bio-active cellular regenerative medium conducive to new bone growth, stimulate cellular growth and regeneration, and inhibit the HIV virus.[103]

Animal Experiments With Fulvic

Early studies with livestock animals were conducted by Dr. Charles S. Hansen, D.V.M. in the state of California from the early 1960’s through 1967 on an experimental basis. Dr. Hansen’s tests included a blend of fulvic acid and humic acid used as a geed additive. He also used fulvic acid alone as a treatment for specific ailments in livestock. The results of supplement feeding and treatment included.

Dairy Cows

  • After 2 months on supplement no bacterial or viral infections.
  • Herd of over 300, after 3 months on supplement, increased butterfat production by 15%
  • Herd on supplement cut back on high protein rations with no decrease in production.
  • All cows on supplement experienced more complete digestion.
  • Cows with bacterial infection (mastitis) treated with 1 pint of fulvic acid solution recovered to full production in 12 to 24 hours.
  • When using antibiotics to treat mastitis the recovery was only 50%-70% after 2-3 weeks.


  • Animals on the supplement experienced better and more complete digestion.
  • The free choice supplement in 36-hrs acted as an excellent vermifuge (deworming agent).
  • The supplement completely eliminated Necro, a bloody diarrhea in hogs.


  • Animal on the supplement experienced more complete digestion.
  • When on the supplement were less vicious, more docile.
  • Supplemented animals ceased fur chewing.
  • Successfully eliminated most diseases common to mink herds.


  • Supplementing to feed acted as a vermifuge.
  • Pullets given supplement were free of most diseases.
  • Pullets on supplement experienced more complete digestion of other feeds in diet.
  • Pullets on the supplement produced eggs of superior shell hardness and quality.

The results of these early tests support the known benefits which fulvic acid provides to all living systems, plant or animal. They indicate that fulvic acid may very possibly become the most important factor in health management in the future.

Information Concerning Possible Toxic Minerals

“Poisons in small doses are the best medicines, and the best medicine in too large doses are poisonous.” A famous quote by Wm. Withering

1. Consumption of plant derived mineral fulvic complexes by humans for many years has shown that they will not build up in the body tissues as do metallic minerals. The following observations and theories describe the reasons why:

  1. Cells have the ability to accept or reject minerals, including aluminum, lead, arsenic, mercury, etc., at their discretion when presented as organic fulvic complexes. It should be considered that these minerals may not necessarily be present to “nourish” cells, but are needed to act as “electrodes” in the fulvic electrolyte solution. In that capacity they are probably most essential for bio-reactions, electron transfer, catalytic reactions, and transmutations.
  2. Fulvic acid carries complexed minerals in “trace” amounts only, at similar levels as is commonly found in healthy plants grown in mineral rich soil under optimum organic growing conditions. These “trace” mineral complexes should not be confused with metallic minerals.
  3. Fulvic acid has the ability to complex and remove toxic metals and other minerals from the system. Fulvic acid mineral solutions have been ingested by people for many years, yet have never been shown to cause toxic mineral build-up in humans.
  4. It is obvious that when metals, minerals, and trace elements become complexed into fulvic acid, they take on an entirely new property of availability, unlike their original form.
  5. It is when fulvic acid is not present that one should seriously worry about toxic build up from any source. This could account for the health problems that are causing concern today in our “fulvic starved” society.

2. Aluminum makes up 12% of the Earth’s crust, and is the most abundant metallic element.

  1. Aluminum is found in biological quantities in most plants grown in soil. Most of our food crops contain 20-200 ppm or more of aluminum. In crops today this concentration would normally be in the absence of fulvic acid.
  2. Known biological function of Aluminum is to activate the enzymes succinic dehydrogenase. It increases survival rate of newborn infants, and according to professor Gerharkt Schrauzer, head of the department of chemistry at UCSD, is an essential mineral for human nutrition.
  3. The Harvard University newsletter recently published a statement that none of the scientific reports regarding the relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and aluminum stated what form the aluminum was in.
  4. In a study that appeared November 5, 1992 in the science journal, NATURE, Frank Watt, ct al (University of Oxford) used a highly accurate laboratory technique to quantify the levels of aluminum in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. To their great surprise, they found the same levels of aluminum in the brains of non-Alzheimer’s control as they did in Alzheimer’s patients. Watts believes that aluminum contaminated stains gave faulty results in the early studies that highlighted aluminum as a health risk.

3. Science is just learning about other supposedly toxic minerals.

  1. It is now generally accepted that arsenic is in fact, in trace levels, and essential element for optimal health and longevity. The levels of arsenic that most people ingest in food or water are not usually considered to be of health concern.
  2. Despite all the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure, there is some evidence that low levels of exposure may be beneficial to good health. Test animals maintained on a diet deficient in arsenic did not gain weight normally, and they became pregnant less frequently than the control animals maintained on a diet containing a more normal (but low) concentration of arsenic. Also, the offspring form the deficient animals tended to be smaller than normal, and some died at an early age.
  3. Arsenic has been found to be essential for survivability of newborn babies and also neonatal growth. Arsenic has been shown to promote the growth rate in animals.
  4. Like most plants, tobacco contains trace amounts of cadmium and lead. It is interesting to note that people that smoke tobacco have about twice as mush cadmium in their bodies as do non-smokers. Higher levels of lead are also found in smokers. It would stand to reason that burning converts the natural organic plant forms of these metals.
  5. The metabolic antagonism between mercury and selenium results in the protection from selenium poisoning by mercury and the protection against mercury poisoning by selenium. A mutual antagonism between the two exists.
  6. Taking in too little zinc is at least as important a health problem as taking in too much zinc. Without enough zinc in the diet, people can experience loss of appetite, decreased sense of taste and smell, slow wound healing, and skin lesions. In severe cases in children, too little zinc can cause poorly developed sex organs and dwarfism.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Statements: Arsenic, Aluminum, Mercury, Zinc, Selenium, Cadmium, Lead.

Kehoe, R.A., et al: Manganese, Lead, Tin, Aluminum, Copper and Silver in Normal biological Material. J. Nutr. July, 1940. Pages 85-98.

Aluminum, Friend or Foe?

False Information

Undocumented information disseminated throughout the health food industry regarding aluminum toxicity has caused undue concern to health conscious individuals everywhere. Because of the persistence of such claims it would be well to examine the issues from the standpoint of documented evidence and reason. Aluminum is one of the most abundant elements on Earth with one-seventh(1/7) of the Earth’s crust being made up of that element. It is never found in its pure form but is always combined with other elements, silica being one of the most common.

Healing Clays

Aluminum combines with oxygen and silica to make up the major elements in montmorillonite clays which people have beneficially used (externally and internally) for thousands of years. Any clay compound found in health food stores contains very high levels (tens of housands of parts per million) of aluminum. Aluminum is a major component in all soils and enters the food chain at every level, be it plant or animal. If natural compounds of “organic” aluminum were toxic or hazardous to human health, life as we know it on planet Earth would cease.

Where Did It Start

Aluminum received a bad rap when a foundry worker in England who pulverized aluminum pellets into powder died of aluminum toxicity. Without goggles, mask or protective clothing he continued his occupation until he became dysfunctional. At his death an autopsy revealed abnormal quantities of aluminum in his lungs, cells and tissues, all of which contributed to his untimely death. Health advocates immediately manned the torch and spread the word that aluminum is a toxic poison which should be banned in any form from contaminating food, drink or medicine.

Iron Toxicity

Any major or trace element used under identical circumstances to that of the English foundry worker would produce toxicity. Essential trace elements are “essential” only when used in trace amounts. When used in excess they become toxic (poison). The same is true with the “major” elements such as iron. When used in excess they become toxic. The fact that most natural compounds of aluminum are inert and pass through the system without harm coupled with the fact that aluminum is never found in nature in the pure form, points to the absurdity of the claims that all forms of aluminum are toxic (poison).

Animals Studies

Controlled studies on rats receiving high levels or aluminum in the form of potassium aluminum sulfate, revealed no appreciable differences between the control groups receiving the aluminum-free diet and animals receiving the “high” aluminum diets. The researchers reported:

“Minute traces of aluminum were found in the various tissues on all of the diets. The aluminum-containing diets were fed for four generations, with no noticeable differences form the animals on the normal diet in behavior or in growth curves beyond a slightly greater initial growth in the rats receiving aluminum.”

An investigation similar to that above was conducted on dogs. As was the case with rats, smaller amounts of aluminum were found in the tissues of the normally fed dogs, and these amounts were not appreciably changed except in the liver, following prolonged ingestion (three months) of aluminum in amounts of 230 ppm and 1550 ppm daily (6 and 2 animals respectively). No detrimental effects were noted in the health of the animals.

A few analyses for aluminum in human autopsies are reported. These in general are in accord with the figures reported for the rat and dog, with the exception that the figures for the liver are lower and for the heart and brain higher.

Poison From the Garden

Most food crops contain 20-200 parts per million of aluminum; with beans testing 1640 parts per million[106](46.5 mg Per ounce). The internationally recognized, Oregon State University scientist, Dr. Melvin N. Westwood, states: that of the thousands of analysis of plant and fruit fibers which he has tested not one sample has ever shown the absence of aluminum, nor does he believe that samples run in an “aluminum-free” culture could be grown without the presence of aluminum…since all seeds contain that element.

All green-leafy vegetables used in salads and green-drinks contain “high” levels of aluminum. Onions are especially high in aluminum, and the strawberry receptacle is loaded with natural compounds of “organic” aluminum. Reported in parts per million(ppm): Mint leaves contain 160, Plantain leaves 56, Beets 28, beet leaves 72, with various marine algae at 40-98 ppm of aluminum. Even our good friends such as spinach contain 102 ppm of aluminum. If natural forms of aluminum are toxic why do we classify most of the above as health foods? And here again, what of the question of build-up in the body?

The Alzheimer’s Myth

Beans and other legumes are especially high in aluminum (1640 ppm) which, simply stated, means that if natural forms of aluminum contributed in any way to Alzheimer’s disease, all ethnic groups eating legumes as a staple part or their diet would manifest epidemic numbers suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. We would suggest that anyone believing that all forms of aluminum are toxic should use extreme caution in eating anything from the garden.

The Team

Nutrients always work as a team. When there is an abnormal concentration of one element, it results in an upset metabolic balance. Human effort to produce super concentrates of any nutrient with total disregard to the overall systems ability to deal with the same element in high concentration is a deadly poison. Organic arsenic in trace amounts is essential, yet in higher concentrations is a poison. We should not mistakenly assume that because certain elements are lethal in high concentrations, that they are also harmful in “trace” amounts. Such concentrates, results in harm to the user. Selenium in trace amounts is absolutely essential. The same element in high concentrations is a deadly poison.

To Be, Or Not To Be (Natural & Unnatural)

All trace elements found in organic beds of ancient origin must e assumed to be of importance. These elements have been placed there by nature and not by man. Because we find natural forms of aluminum in all our food chains we cannot assume that “plant derived” aluminum is non-essential.

To refine out aluminum, arsenic and other trace elements from minerals extracted from naturally occurring organic beds is to change from a “natural” to an “unnatural” state. Since organic aluminum is in all plant foods without exception, one of the surest methods of determining whether a product is natural in the presence (or absence) of aluminum…if there is no aluminum it cannot be natural. All we need to clear our vision concerning the essential nature of trace elements is to review the literature with respect to trace-elements once considered non-essential and see the surprising number of those same elements that have since been discovered to be “very” essential. To be “slow-learners” is better than to be “no-learners” even if we do have to eat humble-pie.

In all likelihood, Aluminum (as contained in plants) may yet prove to be one of our closest friends. (Especially in the complex with fulvic acid.)

Colloidal Minerals vs. Complex Minerals

Definition of Colloid and Colloidal

“A colloid is: A state of matter in which the matter is dispersed in or distributed throughout some medium called the dispersion medium. The matter thus dispersed is called the disperse phase of the colloid system. The particles of the disperse phase are larger than the ordinary crystalloid molecule, but not large enough to settle out under the influence of gravity.”[107]

“Colloids as defined in physical chemistry are: A. a colloidal system, one which a finely divided soled is suspended in a liquid: such colloids range from solutions to gels B. a colloidal suspension. C. a substance that when suspended in a liquid will not diffuse easily through vegetable or animal membrane.”[108]

According to Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences:

“colloidal mineral particles each consist of many aggregates, and each aggregate contains many molecules.”

Thus it stands to reason that colloidal minerals exist in particle sizes many times larger than some other mineral forms. Because of their size, colloidal minerals are not absorbed by the body.[109]

“A colloidal mineral is one hat has been so altered that it will no longer pas through cell walls or other organic membranes.”[110] Dr. Royal Lee

Fulvic Acid and Colloid Questions and Answers

Q. What is a colloid?

A. Colloids are solid particles of extremely small size that (when mixed with a liquid) will not settle out. If the particles dissolve they are no longer colloidal but are dissolved solids. Undisclosed colloids or particles will always reflect light to a greater or lesser degree. Depending on the number & size of the particles present.

Q. How can the ordinary person determine if a solution contains colloidal minerals?

A. All colloids in suspension reflect light. Using a laser pen-light a person can direct its beam through a solution supposedly containing colloids. If colloids are present the beam will be distinct and very visible, depending upon the strength of the solutions. If there are no colloids present there will be no visible beams. Any product claiming to be colloidal minerals…but which produces no visible beam with a laser, is falsely labeled colloidal.

Q. Do plants produce & use colloidal minerals?

A. Plants do not produce or use colloidal minerals.

Q. How then, do plants get needed minerals?

A. Plants do not produce nor use colloidal minerals but are supplied dissolved mineral complexes from soil microorganisms that can and do use colloidal minerals. Though photosynthesis, plants manufacture sugars and exude some of these mucopolysaccharides at the root level. Being slippery the mycopolysaccharides lubricate the soil and help the roots enlarge and grow. Microorganisms relish polysaccharides and rapidly increase in numbers. In return, the microorganisms supply soluble, organo-complexed minerals that plant need for health and vital growth.

Q. What happen when the microorganisms that supply essential organo-complexed mineral are destroyed?

A. The plants lose their flavor, nutrition and vitality, and humans develop deficiency diseases in epidemic proportions.

Q. Has the microorganism-produced bio-chemical been identified that is responsible for complexing and mobilizing minerals for assimilation by plants, and in turn animals and humans?

A. Yes, this extremely complex substance has been isolated. It is called fulvic acid and is produced in extremely small amounts in organically rich soils teaming with vital microorganisms.

Q. Can, or has Fulvic acid ever been synthesized?

A. No, nor is it ever likely to be, considering the extremely complex nature of the material.

Q. Has Fulvic acid ever been extracted commercially?

A. Yes, but beware of counterfeits.

Q. How is it extracted?

A. It is extracted from ancient composted material form once living matter and contains all the major and trace elements present when these organically rich deposits were laid down. Fulvic acid chelates, solubilizes and complexes all monovalent and divalent minerals into bio-nutrients of the highest degree of absorbability for both plants and animals. It is the strongest natural electrolyte know, and is capable of potentizing and enhancing the beneficial effects of the various nutrients, herbs or tinctures with which it may be combined. Without it life would cease to exist as we know it.

Q. In what amounts can it safely be used?

A. Since it is a catalyst as well as a cell nutrient and an extremely effective anti-oxidant, it should be used with all prudence and reason.

Q. Does Fulvic acid contain colloidal minerals?

A. No, Fulvic acid does not contain colloidal minerals (suspended particles) but contains complexed and dissolved minerals and trace elements in the some form our Creator intended for us to use them.

Q. When Fulvic acid is used to complex or dissolve other metals or minerals, will it then respond to the laser light?

A. When Fulvic acid is used to complex other metals or minerals, they become complexed and dissolved…becoming a part of the life-giving molecule of which Fulvic acid is composed. Therefore metals and minerals complexed with Fulvic acid will not respond to the laser light, hence a Fulvic solution containing hundreds, or thousands of parts per million (ppm) of dissolved metal or minerals will not respond to a laser light. There are no suspended particles in solution to reflect light.


Myth: Plant roots turn metallic minerals into colloids.

Truth: Fulvic acid created by microbes turn metallic minerals into molecular complexes, which in turn are available to plant roots.

Myth: Extracts from ancient humic deposits contain colloidal.

Truth: Extracts from ancient humic deposits contain fulvic acid mineral complexes in varying ratios and concentrations.

Myth: Colloids are readily absorbable by human or plant cells.

Truth: The term “colloids” was incorrectly used by some confused individuals, and the industry has continued to build upon it. True colloidal minerals are not readily absorbable, except for a low number in some samples that have been reduced to ionic size. These would still be metallic in form and not good for the body. The term colloids is being mistakenly used to refer to fulvic acid complexes, which are readily absorbable and in the perfect electrolyte form to react with cells.

Analysis of Fulvic Acid

Structure Problem

An accurate evaluation of the trace minerals and elements in the chelated structure of fulvic acid is complicated by the fact that no scientific attempts to identify its molecular structure have succeeded to date.[111] It is known that fulvic acid is a substance that is continuously formed by microbes from decaying plant and animal matter. Many of the beneficial effects of fulvic acid to plants and animals are also know and the list is increasing dramatically. Still only the microbes who formed fulvic acid know how to make it and how it is structured. Every human attempt to either duplicate it or unmask its structure has failed.

Mineral Affinity

Though fulvic acid is usually found having a molecular weight of less than 700, it is capable of complexing or chelating 2 to 6 times more metals than other higher molecular weight complexing agents.[112]

Russian scientists conducted some comparative studies on weathering which involved the chelation of inorganic minerals into the fulvic acid complex. The fulvic acid was brought to a neutral solution by the 100th day of the testing but continued to actively chelate through 200 days. Another 200-days were added to the experiment and the chelating action still continued. The experiment was concluded without knowing how long the action would continue.[113]

Cellular Action

It is known also that fulvic acid is readily admitted into living cells. This may be in part to its low molecular weight, its electrical potential, its bio-transporting ability or factors yet to be discovered. It is known however that once inside the living cell it participates in selective trading or supply of minerals and other nutrient factors inside the cell.[114] In addition to supplying essential nutrients to the cell it has been shown that the fulvic acid can chelate toxins reducing them to a harmless state. The fulvic and humic acids are effective in neutralizing such a wide range of toxic materials from heavy metals, radioactive waste, petro-chemicals and industrial waste that tests are soon to be conducted on a new system designed to compost land fill refuse using the fulvic and humic acids to safely render all toxins harmless. On the cellular level fulvic acid is superior for neutralizing toxins, heavy metals and other harmful substances and carrying these intruders out of the body.[115]

Conventional Testing Approaches

Having established the ability of fulvic acid to chelate or complex with minerals and other micro-nutrients, and its ability to carry these factors into the cells while picking up harmful substances in exchange for safe disposal out of the cell, let us now turn to the challenge of finding out what the fulvic acid had chelated with. Reports from a distributor of a mineral solution which contained an unknown amount of fulvic acid reveled that conventional Mass spectrometer (“Mass spec”) tests submitted to several laboratories resulted in large variations for the same samples of the material. The variances in the total minerals shown were from under 40 to over 50 and this on the same sample. The variance in the amounts of each mineral present in the analysis ran from 50% to 60% difference in detected amounts. These kinds of results were of no value at all. This experience is not unusual with any conventional testing of fulvic or humic acid. Whether one used Mass Spec, Atomic Absorption, Fire Assay or other conventional detection approaches to find out what is complexed into these natural organic acids, and in what specific amounts, you will never come up with a uniform result. There are obvious factors in both the fulvic and humic acid complexes which at times mask elements from view and at other times show such high readings as to be totally out of reason. The key to unlock this riddle is yet to be discovered or announce to the scientific community. It may be reasonable to assume that this discovery will appear upon the heals of the discovery of the molecular structure of fulvic and humic acids.

Radioactive Reactions with Fulvic and Humic Substances

According to Szaloy, radioactive elements react with humic substances and require only a brief time until equilibrium is reached.[116]

F.W. Pauli stated that the solubility, migration, and accumulation of uranium are influenced by humic and fulvic acids. The fuel discharged from the light water reactors is contaminated with substantial amounts of plutonium and uranium. These ions react with humic compounds at a much more rapid rate than do copper, nickel, lead, or cadmium ions.[117]

Pillai and Mathew agreed that it would not be unrealistic to presume that the geochemical behavior of plutonium and uranium is influenced by humic substances. They reported the presence of plutonium in purified organic material extracted from coastal sediments and indicated the possibility of the accumulation of plutonium on organic surfaces because the concentration of plutonium increased over time. As they confirmed that the organic matter solubilized the plutonium, they discovered that the addition of organic matter inhibited the hydrolysis and precipitation of the added plutonium. It was further reported that this scenario duplicates the action with uranium and other radioactive elements.[118]

Rashid stated that nuclear reactor wastes contain unused uranium, the basic fuel, and long-lived fission product nuclides and actinides, including plutonium, strontium-90, zirconium-95, iodine-129, cesium-137 and cesium 135, all in abundance. Activated metals such as cobalt-60, iron-59, and manganese-54 also are present in reactor waste. He states that the basic reactions of these materials with humic substances are parallel to those of other transition and trace metals.[119]

Radioactive elements have an affinity for humic and fulvic acids. They form organo-metal complexes of different adsorptive stability and solubility. Uranuim and plutonium are influenced by humic substances as are other polluting metals, each being solubilized and absorbed, thereby annihilating that specific radioactivity.” [120]

Reported Claims of Effective Treatment of Symptoms

Anemia Cystitis High Blood Sugar
Angina Dermatitis Migraine Headaches
Arteriosclerosis Diabetes Multiple Sclerosis
Arthritis Diarrhea Muscle Cramps
Burns Diverticulitis Nervous Disorders
Blood Clots Eczema Nervous Stomach
Bursitis Edema Open Sores
Cancers Fractures Parasite Infection
Chemical Burns Gall Stones Shingles
Chronic Fatigue Gastritis Sunburn
Chronic Indigestion Gout Stroke
Chronic Psoriasis Heartburn Toxic Buildup
Circulation Problems Hemorrhoids Ulcers
Common Colds High Blood Pressure Varicose Veins
Colitis H.I.V. Virus Yeast Infections
Croup Hypoglycemia

Fulvic Acid and Vegetal Silica

Most Calcium Supplements Don’t Seem To Be Effective

It has become obvious that calcium supplements are not working properly. People continue to suffer deficiency and degenerative diseases in spite of efforts from the medical profession to remedy the problem. People that have had large amounts of calcium in their water supply, milk, and other mineral sources, show no improvement either.

How is the human body meant to obtain calcium? It is a well known fact that the human body was meant to eat a diet high in fresh fruits, vegetables, and grains. In that knowledge is the answer and key to the problem.

Fulvic Acid and Vegetal Silica

Fresh food crops grown in balanced organic soil, high in compost and teaming with microbes would contain ample fulvic acid and vegetal silica. Yet today our crops are grown in near sterile soil with few microbes, little fulvic acid, and are picked, refrigerated and stored until they are often not very fresh anyway. Yet how would vegetal silica and fulvic acid help with calcium?

Vegetal Silica Transmutates Into Calcium

The public will be interested to learn that major calcium benefits are best derived from vegetal silica and not from calcium. As more and more information is discovered about the profound importance of silica in the human diet, noted researchers are suggesting that silica should be listed as an “essential” element. Among those researchers is Professor Louis C. Kervran, a former Minister of Health in France. Aided by the official laboratories of France, Kervran and associates concluded that the calcium needed by animal cells seldom is derived from mineral calcium, rather, it is the product of “biological transmutations” from silica and other elements.

Professor Louis C. Kervran’s Research

They found that chickens totally deprived of calcium produced soft shelled eggs. When “mica” was added to their diets, the hens’ ability to lay calcium rich, hard shelled eggs was restored. Mica contains no calcium; but, it does contain potassium and silica, both of which can be biologically transmutated into calcium.

Kervran found that an analysis of incubated chicken eggs revealed that hatched chick’s contained 400% more calcium than did the egg from which they came. Examination of eggs prior to incubation, revealed the yoke and the white to be separated from the shill by a membrane rich in organic silica. After incubation, the membrane was no longer present. The silica had transmutated into calcium, which accounted for the four fold increase of calcium in the hatched chicks.

These same researchers conducted other controlled animal experiments. When vegetal silica was added to the diets of animals with broken bones, the bones healed much faster and stronger than the bones of a control group of animals deficient in vegetal silica but rich in mineral calcium.

Absence Of Silica In Conjunction With Degenerative Disease

Patients with degenerative diseases nearly always show a considerable deficiency of silica in their bodies. It has been found that geographical areas rich in vegetal silica have lower cancer rates, while the opposite is true of locales with high calcium intake and low soluble silica.

It becomes obvious then, that fulvic acids complexed with vegetal silica, which is in nature perfect organic plant form, can provide components necessary for transmutation to calcium in our bodies. Fulvic acid has been found to be especially good at dissolving organic silica. Fulvic acid also provides the perfect electrolyte to allow bio-reactions associated with transmutations of minerals to take place in the cell. It is believed through observations, that vegetal silica complexed with fulvic acid has the unique ability to help dissolve metallic minerals in diseased tissue and transmutate and relocate useable new mineral complexes to other areas needed by the body.

Vegetal Silica Vs. Mineral Silica

Professor Kervran also found that vegetal silica transforms to mineral silica as plants age or over mature. Experiments showed that the mineral silica became more harmful because it decalcifies the body.

So it is important to realize that only young fresh rapidly growing plants contain soluble vegetal silica. And it is important to know that this from of silica in conjunction with natural enzymes and bio-factors found in fulvic acid, most likely maximizes benefits essential to production of calcium in our bodies.

It is also important to understand that most commercial sources of vegetal silica are unreliable as to the age and maturity of plants, and often contain mature mineral silica. Farmers and suppliers will often sell whatever they can get to meet market demand. They don’t really understand the implications.

It is important to bear in mind that it is imperative to have a very reliable source to obtain high concentrations of helpful vegetal silica. It must be harvested from actively growing young plants to be of proper benefit.

Ultimately the answer to the calcium crisis lies in the human consumption of crops grown under optimum organic conditions with abundant natural fulvic acid and trace minerals that would be high in soluble vegetal silica. In the mean time supplementations with fulvic acid complexed with vegetal silica extract will accomplish similar results.

Noted Observations Concerning Fulvic Acid, Vegetal Silica, & Arthritis

Fulvic Acid and vegetal silica appear to have the unique ability to interact positively with degenerative calcium deposits and unhealthy cone structures in the body. Arthritis sufferers taking a combination of fulvic acid and vegetal silica have noticed an immediate and marked increase in discomfort, and this has continued for 1 to 2 weeks or sometimes longer after beginning of use. This discomfort is believed to be due to the breakdown of calcium deposits in the joints and its ongoing and subsequent mobilization, dissolution, and removal. It is further believed that these calcium deposits react with the fulvic acid minerals, and silica and transmutate in to more suitable forms that become beneficial to the body. After the painful period, the discomfort begins to diminish and noted relief of symptoms begins. Some arthritis sufferers notice the beginning of relief in 2 to 3 weeks. Others may take longer, yet show signs of relief after several months of use. Some people notice significant relief of arthritis symptoms in about 30 days. A significant number of people report total relief in 1-5 months.

Science Has A Lesson To Be Learned

The Wisdom of Man, and the “Theory” of Chemical Fertilizers

The Story of Justis von Liebig

The man that is given credit for being responsible for the origin of chemical fertilizers is Justis von Liebig. You might call him the “Father of N-P-K” (nitrogen, phosphorus, potash), because of his agricultural studies and discoveries with regards to the use of these three elements. He lectured before the British Association fro the Advancement of Science. His reasoning was that one could analyze the produce of an acre and return the nutrients removed, along with adding a little extra. He argued that man and animals received nourishment and support from plants, whereas plants derive their means from only inorganic substances. These lectures took place in about 1841. Eventually he was convincing enough that they accepted his “build up program.” Agricultural science went on from that day to build their entire basis on his premise, and has continued to this day in these practices without ever looking back.

In 1843, Justis von Liebig recorded the following observations concerning his previous work, but it was too late, few listened:

“I had sinned against the wisdom of our creator, and received just punishment for it. I wanted to improve his handiwork, and in my blindness, I believed that in this wonderful chain of laws, which ties life to the surface of the earth and always keeps it rejuvenated, there might be a missing link that had to be replaced by me – this week powerless nothing.”

“The law, to which my research on the topsoil led me, states, ‘On the outer crust of the earth, under the influence of the sun, organic life shall develop’. And so, the great master and builder gave the fragments of the earth the ability to attract and hold all these elements necessary to feed plants and further serve animals, like a magnet attracts and holds iron particles, so as no piece be lost. Our master enclosed a second law unto this one, through which the plant bearing earth becomes an enormous cleansing apparatus for the water. Through this particular ability, the earth removes from the water all substances harmful to humans and animals-all products of decay and putrefaction, of perished plant and animal generations.”

“What might justify my actions is the circumstance, that a man is the product of his time, and he is only able to escape the commonly accepted views if a violent pressure urges him to muster all of his strength to struggle free of these chains of error. The opinion, that plants draw their food from a solution that is formed in the soil through rainwater, was everyone’s belief. It was engraved into my mind. This opinion was wrong and the source of my foolish behavior.”

“When a chemist makes mistakes in rating agricultural fertilizers, don’t be too critical of his errors, because he has had to base has conclusions upon facts which he can’t know from his own experience, but rather, he has to take from agricultural texts as true and reliable. After I learned the reason why my fertilizer weren’t effective in the proper way I was like a person that received a new life. For along with that, all processes of tillage were now explained as to their natural laws. Now that this principle is known and clear to all eyes, the only thing that remains is the astonishment of why it hadn’t been discovered a long time age. The human spirit, however, is a strange thing; ‘Whatever doesn’t fit into the given circle of thinking doesn’t exist’.”

1. Liebig, J. v. 1841. Organic chemistry and its application to agriculture and physiology. Translated by J.W. Webster and Owen J. Cambridge.
2. Liebig, J. v. 1843. Translation and observations from family members; Available 1992, Switzerland. Provided by David Larson and Charles Martin. Translated to an unpublished memo.
3. Liebig, J. v. 1856. On some points of agriculture chemistry. Journal of the Royal Agriculture Society, 17, 284-326.


[1] Senesi, N. (1990). Analytica Chimica Acta, 232, 51-75. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.

[2] Vital electrolytes – Baker, W.E. (1973). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 37, 269-281.

[3] Gamble, D.S., & Schnitzer, M. (1974). Trace Metals and Metal-Organic Interactions in Natural Waters. Ann Arbor, Mi: Ann Arbor Science.

[4] Power of an electorlyte – Crile, G. (1926). A bipolar theory of living processes. New York: McMillan.

[5] Decrease in electrical potential – Crile, G. (1926). A bipolar theory of living processes. New York: McMillan

[6] Powerful electrolyte – Jackson, William R. (1993). Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning, 329. Evergreen, Colorado: Jackson Research Center.

[7] New Electronic Encyclopedia. (1991). Photosynthesis. Grolier Electronic Publishing.

[8] Donor and acceptor – Jackson, William R. (1993). Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning. Evergreen, Colorado: Jackson Research Center.

[9] Donor and receptor – Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of marine humic substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[10] Donor, receptor – Sposito, G., Holtzclaw, K.M., LeVesque, C.S., & Johnston, C.T.(1982). Trace metal chemistry in arid-zone field soils amended with sewage sludge. II. Comparative study of the fulvic acid fraction. Soil Science Society America Journal, 46. 265-270.

[11] Mineral complexes in fulvic may serve as electrodes – Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of marine humic substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[12] Free radical – Senesi, N. (1990) Analytica Chmica Acta, 232, 51-75. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.

[13] Free radical – Senesi, N., Chen, Y., & Schnitzer, M. (1977b). The role of humic acids in extracellular electron transport and chemical determination of pH in natural waters. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 9,397-403.

[14] Oxidation reduction – Senesi, N., Chen, Y., & Schnitzer, M. (1977b). The role of humic humic acids in extracellular electron transport and chemical determination of pH in natural wates. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 9, 397-403.

[15] Dissolves metals and minerals – Ong, H.L., Swanson, V.D., & Bisque, R.E. (1970) Natural organic acids as agents of chemical weathering (130-170). U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 700 c. Washngton, DC: U.S. Geological Survey.

[16] Enhance and transport nutrients – Christman, R.F., & Gjessing, E.T. (1983). Aquatic and terrestrial humic materials. The Butterworth Grove, Kent, England: Ann Arbor Science.
Also: Prakash, A. (1971). Terrigenous organic matter and coastal phytoplankton fertility. In J.D. Costlow (Ed), Fertility of the sea, 2, 351-368. (Proceedings of an International Symposium on Fertilty of the Sea, Sao Paulo, Brazil, London, and New York: Gordon and Breach Science)

[17] Enhance and transport nutrients – Prakish, A. (1971). Fertility of the Sea, 2, 351-368.

[18] Williams, S. T. (1963). Are antibiotics produced in soil? Pedobiologia, 23, 427-435.

[19] Stimulate growth – Konovona, M.M. (1966). Soil organic matter. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.

[20] All known vitamins in soil – Konovova, M. M. (1966). Soil organic matter. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.

[21] Many times its weight- Deb, B. C. (1949). The movement and precipitation of iron oxides in podzol soils. Journal of Soil Science, 1, 112-122.

[22] Catalyzes enzyme reactions – Khristeva, L. A., Luk’Yanonko, M.V. (1962). Role of physiologically active substances in soil-humic acids, bitumens and vitamins B, C, P-P A and D in the life of plants and their replenishment. oviet Soil Science, 10, 1137-1141.

[23] Fulvic and enzymes – Pardue, H.L, Townshend, A., Clere, J.T., VanderLinden (Eds.), (1990, May 1). Analytica chimica Acta, Special Issue, Humic and Fulvic compounds, 232 (1), 1-235. (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers)

[24] Increase assimilation – Buffle

[25] Low molecular weight, Aiken, G.R., McKnight, D.M., & VacCarthy, P.1985). Humic substances of soil, sediment and water, New York: Wiley-Interscience.

[26] Sensitize cell membranes- Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Spriner-Verlag.

[27] Stimulte metabolism-Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[28] Genetic and growth – Jackson, William R. (1993). Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning, 538. Evergreen, Colorado: Jackson Research Center.

[29] Oxygen is absorbed – Kononova, M.M. (1966). Soil organic matter. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.

[30] Rapid transport to shoots – Kononova, M.M. (1966). Soil organic matter. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon

[31] Immune system – Syltic, P.W. (1985). Effects of very small amounts of highly active biological substances on plant growth. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 2, 245-269; and, Research reports and studies, Appropriate Technology Ltd. Dallas, TX: Murray Sinks II of ATL (Publisher).

[32] Modify damage by toxic compounds – Christman, R.F., & Gjessing, E.T. (1983). Aquatic and terrestrial humic materials. The Butterworth Grove, Kent, England: Ann Arbor Science. Also: Prakash, A. (1971). Terrigenous organic matter and coastal phytoplankton fertility. In J.D. Costlow (Ed.), Fertility of the sea, 2, 351-368. (Proceedings of an International Symposium on Fertility of the Sea, Sao Paulo, Brazil, London, and New York: Gordon and Breach Science.)

[33] Enviromental chemicals-

[34] Paraquat – Fisher, A.M., Winterle, J.S., & Mill, T. (1967). Primary photochemical processes in photolysis mediated by humic substances. In R.G. Zika & W. J. Cooper (Eds). Photochemistry of environmental aquatic system (141-156). (ACS Sympoium Series 327). Washington DC: American Chemical Society.

[35] Pesticides – Aiken, G.R., McKnight, D.M., & MacCarthy, P. (1985). Humic substances os oil, sediment and water. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

[36] Radioactive properties – Szalay, A. (1958). The signifiicance of humus in the geochemical enrichment of uranium. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, 2, 12-186 (London: Pergamon)

[37] Dissolves and weathers silica- Huang, W.H., & Deller, W.D. (1970). Dissolution of rock-forming silicate minerals in organic acids; simulated first-stage weathering of fresh mineral surfaces. American Mineralogical Journal, 55, 2076-2094.

[38] Dissolves silica- Kodama, H., Schnitzer, M., & Jaakkimainen, M. (1983). Chlorite and biotite weathering by fulvic acid solutions in closed and open systems. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 63, 619-629.

[39] Transmutate or synthesis of new minerals – Shnitzer, M., Dodama. H. (1977). Reactions of minerals with soil humic substances. In J.B. Dixon & S.B. Weed (Eds.), Minerals in soil environments (Chap.21)). Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America.

[40] See “The Fulvic Acid, Vegetal Silica Miracle” later in this report, and further documentation of Kervran, Louis C, Biological Transmutations.

[41] Cell elongation – Poapst, P.A., & Schnitzer, M. (1971). Fulvic acid and adventitious root formation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 3, 215-219.

[42] Enhance permeability of cell membranes – Christman, R.F., & Gjessing, E.T. (1983). Aquatic and terrestrial humic materials. The Butterworth Grove, Kent, England: Ann Arbor Science. Also: Prakash, A. (1971). Terrigenous organic matter and coastal phytoplankton fertility. In J.D. Costlow (Ed.), Fertility of the sea, 2, 351-368. (Proceedings of an International Symposium on Fertility of the Sea, Sao Paulo, Brazil, London, and New York: Gordon and Breach Science) low molecular weight, Aiken, G.R., McKnight, D.M., & VacCarthy, P. 1985). Humic substances of soil, sediment and water, New York: Wiley – Interscience.

[43] Sensitizing agent – Prakash, A. (1971). Terrigenous organic matter and coastal phytoplankton fertility. In J.D. Costlow (Ed.), Fertility of the sea, 2, 351-368. (Proceedings of an International Symposium on Fertility of the Sea, Sao Paulo, Brazil, London, andNew York: Gordon and Breach Science)

[44] Increase metabolism of proteins – Christman, R.F., & Gjessing, E.T. (1983). Aquatic and terrestrial humic materials. The Butterworth Grove, Kent, England: Ann Arbor Science. Also: Prakash, A. (1971). Terrigenous organic matter and coastal phytoplankton fertility. In J.D. Costlow (Ed.), Fertility of the sea, 2, 351-368. (Proceedings of an International Symposium on Fertility of the Sea, Sao Paulo, Brazil, London, and New York: Gordon and Breach Science)

[45] proteins, DNA, RNA – Khristeva, L.A., Soloche, K.I., Dynkina, R.L., Kovalenko, V.E., & Gorobaya, A.I. (1967). Influence of physiologically active substances of soil humus and fertilizers on nucleic acid metabolism, plant growth and subsequent quality of the seeds. Humus et Planta, 4, 272-276.

[46] Proteins, DNA, RNA – Jackson, William R. (1993). Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning, 569-570. Evergreen, Colorado: Jackson Research Center.

[47] Synthesis of RNA and DNA – Khristeva, L.A. (1968). About the nature of physiologically active substances of the soil humus and of organic fertilizers and their agricultural importance. In F.V. Hernando (Ed,), Pontifica academec scientarium citta del vaticano (701-721). New York: John Wiley.

[48] Catalyst to vitamins within the cell – Williams, Dr. Roger J. (1977). The Wonderful World Within You. Bio-Communications Press. Wichita, Kansas.

[49] Transport metal ions – Schnitzer, M., & Khan, S.U. (1972). Humic substances in the environment New York: Decker.

[50] Acidity of fulvic acid – Schnitzer, M. (1977). Recent findings of the characterization of humic substances extracted fromsoils from widely differing climatic zones. Proceedings of the Symposium on Soil Organic Matter Studies, Braunsweig (117-131).

[51] Environment with adeequate oxygen – Schnitzer, M. (1977). Recent findings of the characterization of humic substances extracted from soils from widely differing climatic zones. Proceedings of the Symposium on Soil Organic Matter Studies, Braunsweig (117-131).

[52] Low molecular weight – Aiken, G. R., McKnight, D.M., & MacCarthy, P. 1985). Humic substances of soil, sediment and water, New York: Wiley-Interscience.

[53] Absorption by cells – Azo, S. & Sakai, I (1963). Studies on the physiological effects of humic acid. Part 1. Uptake of humic acid by crop plants and its physiological effects. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 9(3), 1-91. (Tokyo)

[54] translocation of trace elements to leaf tissues – Aiken, G.R., McKnight, D.M., & VacCarthy,P. 1985). Humic substances of soil, sediment and water, New York: Wiley-Interscience.

[55] Important for the health of plants – Christman, R.F., & Gjessing, E.T. (1983). Aquatic and terrestrial humic materials. The Butterworth Grove, Kent, England: Ann Arbor Science. Also: Prakash, A. (1971). Terrigenous organic matter and coastal phytoplankton fertility. In J.D. Costlow (Ed.), Fertility of the sea, 2, 351-368. (Proceedings of an International Symposium on Fertility of the Sca, Sao Paulo, Brazil, London, and New York: Gordon and Breach Science)

[56] depleted minerals in soil – Senate Document #264.

[57] Impossible to define- Vaughan, D., & Malcolm, R.E. (1985b). Soil organic matter and biological activity. Plant and soil Science, 16, 1-443. (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff/Dr.W.Junk)

[58] unable to be synthesized – not clearly defined. Murray, K., & Linder, P.W. (1983). Fulvic acids: Structure and metal binding. I. A random molecular model. Journal of Soil Science, 34, 511-523.

[59] Unable to define – Senesi, N., Chen, Y., & Schnitzer, M. (1977b). the role of humic acids in extracellular electron transport and chemical determination of pH in natural waters. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 9, 397-403.

[60] Effect on total Earth environment – Buffle, J. (1988). Complexation reactions in aquatic systems: An analytical approach. Chichester: Horwood.

[61] Transmutate or synthesis of new minerals – Shnitzer, M., & Dodama, H. (1977). Reactions of minerals with soil humic substances. In J.B. Dixon & S.B. Weed (Eds.), Minerals in soil environments (Chap. 21)). Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America.

[62] See further studies on colloids in later sections of this report.

[63] complex more metal – Rashid, M.A. (1971). Role of humic acids of marine origin and their different molecular weight fractions in complexing Di-and Triavalent metals. Soil Science, 111, 298-306.

[64] Dissolves more metal – Hoffman, M.R., Yost, E.C., Eisenreich, S.J., & Mairer, W.J. (1981). Characterization of soluble and colloidal phase metal complexes in river water ultrafiltration. A mass balance approach. Environmental Science Technology, 15, 655.

[65] Mineral levels in excess of their assumed dissolution ability – Kodama, H., Schnitzer, M., & Jaakkimainen, M. (1983). Chlorite and biotite weathering by fulvic acid solutions in closed and open systems. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 63, 619-629.

[66] Penetration of fulvic into plant cells – Prat, S., Smidova, M., & Cincerova, A.L. (1961). Penetration and effect of humus substances (fractions) on plant cells. International Congress of Biochemistry, 5th (Abstract Commun. 329). (Moscow)

[67] “free radical” – Senesi, N. (1990) Analytica Chimica Acta, 232, 51-75. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.

[68] Vital electrolytes – Backer, W.E. (1973) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 37, 269-281.

[69] Enhance and transport nutrients – Prakash, A. (1971). Fertility of the Sea, 2, 351-368.

[70] Make water wetter – Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[71] Catalyze enzyme reactions – Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[72] Increase assimilation – Buffle, J. (1988). Complexation Reactions in Aquatic Systems: An Analytical Approach. Chichester: Horwood.

[73] Stimulate metabolism – Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[74] Chelate…major and trace elements – Rashid, M.A. (1971). Soil Science, 111, 298-306.

[75] Capacity for electrochemical balance – Senesi, N. (1990) Analytica Chimica Acta, 232, 51-75. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.

[76] Essential to the process – Christman, R.F., & Gjessing, E.T. (1983). Aquatic and Terrestrial Humic Materials. The Butterworth Grove, Kent, England: Ann Arbor Science.

[77] Essential to healthy plants – California Fertilizer Association. (1985). Western Fertilizer Handbook. Danville, II: Interstate.

[78] Same amount of time – Greenland, D.J., (1965). Soils and Fertilizers.35(5), 415-532.

[79] Auxin type reactions – Wilkins, M.D. (Ed.). (1984). Advanced Plant Physiology. Marshfield, MA: Pitman.

[80] Plant circulatory systems – Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Springer – Verlag.

[81] Transpiration systems – Kononova, M.M. (1966). Soil Organic Matter. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.

[82] Deterioration – Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[83] Fibrous root growth – Kononova, M.M. (1966). Soil Organic Matter. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.

[84] Insect infestation – Salk, P.L., & Parker, L.W. (1986). A New Agricultural Biotechnology: Potential Applications in Arid and Semi-Arid Zones. American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Government of LaRioja, Argentina.

[85] The Fulvic Miracle list – Jackson, William R. (1993). Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning. Evergreen, Colorado: Jackson Research Center.

[86] Increase enzyme activity – Malcolm, R.D., & Vaughan, D. (1979). Comparative effects of soil organic matter fractions on phosphatase activities in wheat roots. Plant and Soil, 51, 117-126. Also: Mato, M.C., Gonzales-Alonso, L.M., & Mendez, J. (1972). Inhibition of enzymatic indoleacetic acid oxidation by fulvic acids. Soil Biology and Biochmistry, 4, 475-478.

[87] Prevents wilting – Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of marine humic substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[88] Chemical weathering, Simonson, R.W. (1959). Outline of a generalized theory of soil genesis. Science Society America Proceedings, 23, 152-156.

[89] Dissolves silica, Ponomareva, V.V., & Ragim-Zade, A.I. (1969). Comparative study of fulvic and humic acids as agents of silicate mineral decomposition. Society Soil Science, 1, 157-165. (Trans. From Pochvovedenic. (1969), 3, 26-36)

[90] Who and What Are You? – Williams, Dr.Roger J. (1977). The Wonderful World Withing You.Bio-Communications Press. Wichita, Kansas.

[91] And duplicates itself – Williams, Dr.Roger J. (1977). The Wonderful World Within You.Bio-Communications Press. Wichita, Kansas.

[92] other nutritional factors – ibid.

[93] extremely different types – ibid.

[94] can produce only one – ibid.

[95] disease we experience – ibid.

[96] amino acids that attract insects – Chaboussou, F. (1980). Les Plantes Malades des Pesticides – Bases Nouvelles D’une Prevention Contre Maladies et Parasites. (Plants made sick by pesticides – New basis for the prevention of diseases and pests). Paris.

[97] Catalyst to vitamins within the cell – Williams, Dr. Roger J. (1977). The Wonderful World Within You. Bio-Communications Press. Wichita, Kansas.

[98] Mader, S.S. (1990). Biology (3rd edition). Dubuque, Ia: William C. Brown.

[99] for complete metabolism – Williams, Dr. Roger J. (1977). The Wonderful World Within You. Bio-Communications Press. Wichita, Kansas.

[100] maximum stimulation of enzyme development – Jackson, William R. PhD. (1993). Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning. Evergreen, Colorado.

[101] enzyme reactions and formation – Jackson, William R. PhD. (1993). Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning.Evergreen, Colorado.

[102] free radicals, Senesi, N. (1990). Molecular and quantitative aspects of the chemistry of fulvic acid and its interactions with metal ions and organic chemicals: Bari Italy. Analytica Chimica Acta, 232, 51-75. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.

[103] Schlickewei, Dr. W., (1993). Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 112:275-279, Influence of humate on calcium hydroxyapatite implants.

[104] W. Schlickewei, Dept. of Surgery (Traumatology), University Hospital, Freiburg, Germany

[105] U.N. Riede, Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Freiburg, Germany. J. Yu, Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Freiburg, Germany. W. Ziechmann, Ground chemistry Research Group, University of Gorringen, Germany. E.H. Kuner, Dept. of Surgery (Traumatology), University Hospital, Freiburg, Germany. B. Seubert, Weyl Chemicals, Mannheim, Germany

[106] dry beans – Bertrand, G. & G. Levy. The Content of Plants, Notably Food Plants, in Aluminum Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 192 (1931), No. 9 pp. 525-529; Compt. Rend. Acad. Agr. France, 17 (1931), pp 235-238, (E.S.R.) 66, p.193.

[107] definition of a colloid – Dorland’s Illustrated Dictionary, 24th Edition.

[108] definition of colloids – Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Current Edition

[109] colloids and their size – Max Motyka, M.S., Albion Laboratories.

[110] colloids – Lee, Royal, D.D.S. The Mineral Elements in Nutrition. The writings of Dr. Royal Lee.(Accredited as being one of the most respected men in the area of nutritional knowledge to have ever lived.)

[111] Murray, K., & Linder, P.W. (1983). Fulvic acids: Structure and metal binding. I. A random molecular model. Journal of soil Science, 34, 511- 523

[112] Rashid, M.A. (1971). Soil Sciences, 111, 298-306. Hoffman, M.R., Yost, E.C., Eiscncich,S.J., & Maier, W.J. (1981) Environmental Science Tecnology, 15, 655.

[113] Ponomarcva, V.V., & Ragim-Zadc, A.I. (1969). Comparative study of fulvic and humic acids as agents of silicate mineral decomposition.Society Soil Science, 1, 157-165. (Trans. From Pochvovedie. (1969), 3, 26-36)

[114] Rashid, M.A. (1985) Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.; Vaughn, D., Malcolm, R.E., & Ord, B.G. (1985) Soil Organic Matter and Biological Activity. (p. 77-108) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff; Vaughn, D., Ord, B., & Malcolm, R.E. (198) Journal of Experimental Botany, 29,1337-1344.

[115] Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[116] Szalay, A. (1958). The significance of humus in the geochemical enrichment of uranium. Preceedings of the 2nd International conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic energy, 2, 182-186. (London: Pergamon)

[117] Pauli, F.W. (1975). Heavy metal humates and their behavior against hydrogen sulfide. Soil Science, 119, 98-105.

[118] Pillai, K.C., & Mathew, E. (1976). Plutonium in the aquatic environment: Its behavior, distribution and significance. In Transuranium nuclides in the environment (pp. 25-45). Proceeding of the Sumposium, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

[119] Rashid, M.A. (1985). Geochemistry of Marine Humic Substances. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[120] W.R. Jackson PhD. (1993) Humic, Fulvic, and Microbal Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning (pp. 762-763).

World’s Oldest Antibiotic Also Shows Promise as anti-cancer therapy

World’s Oldest Antibiotic Also Shows Promise as an Anti-Cancer Therapy



Colloidal silver is a powerful healer, despite irrational FDA opposition to it.

Silver has been used medicinally throughout the ages, with great success. And now some very promising research is being done on silver as a cancer treatment. Patients have previously been treated with chemotherapy drugs containing another metal, platinum. In a head-to-head comparison against a leading platinum-based chemo drug, cisplatin, a silver-based drug was found to be just as effective—and far less toxic to normal cells than platinum. Dr. Charlotte Willans, the lead researcher, calls the research an important step in the quest for effective, non-toxic cancer treatments.

Silver also happens to be the world’s oldest known antibiotic. There’s written evidence that the ancient Egyptians made use of it; the ancient Greeks and Romans stored their water, wine, and other liquids in silver vessels to prevent spoiling and contamination; ancient Chinese emperors ate with silver chopsticks, and wealthy Europeans in the Middle Ages used silver utensils to protect themselves from illness (we still call our eating utensils “silverware” despite it being made from other metals these days).

In the 1800s and early 1900s, colloidal silver compounds were widely used to fight infections, though silver fell out of favor in the 1930s with the development of the first modern antibiotics. Even so, silver is still popularly used today to treat water, purify air, and is used in medical dressings prevent infection in burn victims. Very importantly in today’s world, germs cannot develop a resistance to silver.

The big problem with antibiotic drugs, we now know, is that bacteria can become resistant to them, adapting into “superbugs” that are very difficult to treat. The problem, as we noted in January, is exacerbated by overuse of antibiotics—particularly in animals raised for food, where 80% of US antibiotics are used.

Despite the long history of successful silver usage, including its current use in wound dressings and burn salves, the FDA’s official position is that silver is “not safe or effective for treating any disease or condition.” A 1996 FDA rule declared all over-the-counter silver products to be unsafe and “misbranded.”

The government and other skeptics often claim that colloidal silver can cause argyria—a condition in which the skin turns bluish gray. However, argyria has only been found to occur in response to prolonged exposure to or ingestion of silver compounds, especially silversalts, which are not present in true colloidal silver but are found in cheap imitations.

This was demonstrated rather dramatically in 2008 by Paul Karason, the fellow whom the news media dubbed the “Blue Man.” Although the news media continually reported that he was taking colloidal silver, interviews with Mr. Karason indicated that was apparently making his own silver compounds at home and ended up making silver chloride—a silver salt—which he both consumed in excessive quantities and regularly smeared on his skin before using tanning beds! Silver salt compounds are great for making photographic paper—but not for taking internally or applying to the skin.

A study published earlier this year demonstrated that bacteria are now mutating to evade vaccines for childhood pneumonia and meningitis. So we not only have antibiotic-resistant superbugs, we have vaccine-resistant ones as well. This is just the latest indication that the “miracle drugs” and vaccines of the mid-to-late 1900s are not standing the test of time.

Contrast this with colloidal silver, which has been used as a bactericide for over a millennium—and has never produced silver-resistant bacteria! The recent research into silver as an anti-cancer agent is exactly the kind of research that today’s medical experts should be exploring—and would be, but for FDA opposition.

Why is the FDA so stubbornly opposed? Presumably because the agency does not like competition for its approved patented drugs which are derived from natural sources. People dying from resistant bugs does not seem to move the FDA—they’re only interested in new patented drugs that might quell the superbugs, even though such drugs are not being produced much, and even when they are, they often prove to be too toxic to use.

Colloidal Silver clinical studies and reports

Colloidal silver 500ml


Clinical Studies and Reports on the
Antimicrobial Qualities of Colloidal Silver








The following PDF documents consist of a variety of clinical studies and independent research reports on the antimicrobial qualities of colloidal silver-related products including silver ions, silver compounds, silver nanoparticles, nanosilver compounds, silver-impregnated and silver-coated products, and many other forms of silver being used in a wide variety of ways, but almost all for the purpose of benefitting from the powerful antimicrobial qualities of silver itself.

These studies and reports are supplied for informational purposes only, and should not be construed in any way as providing medical advice or guidance. They cover a wide range of data on silver, including some surprising findings and discoveries regarding silver’s powerful antimicrobial, infection-fighting and disinfectant qualities.

These studies and reports are compiled here with the intent of giving the reader or researcher a general understanding of the many uses of antimicrobial silver, from a variety of viewpoints, both clinical and personal. The studies are not meant to convey efficacy of any particular colloidal silver product.

Because research into antimicrobial silver is ongoing, and because opinions and conclusions tend to vary depending upon the factors involved in different studies, these studies and reports should be considered merely as a starting point for your own research, and not be considered the final word on silver and its many antimicrobial, infection-fighting or disinfectant benefits.

Note to Publishers and Authors: If you feel any of these PDF files are on this site in violation of copyright, please inform me immediately by email, at sales@TheSilverEdge.com, or at the phone number at the bottom of this page. These PDF files have been garnered from a variety of internet sources where they were found posted with no restrictions. They are here under fair use, and for non-commercial informational purposes only.

Note to Readers: The following files are PDF files. This means you need a program called Adobe Acrobat on your computer, in order to open and view them. Most computers come pre-installed with Adobe Acrobat. But yours may not. If that’s the case, you can download Adobe Acrobat at no cost fromhttp://get.adobe.com/reader. Readers should also take note that downloading, emailing, posting or any other re-publication of these files in other forums may constitute a violation of the author’s copyright.

120 Years of Nanosilver History Demonstrate Its Safety and Repudiate Attempts to Paint It As a “New Substance” With “Unknown Risks”
Nanosilver is assumed to be a new material because of the relatively recent emergence of the term “nano”. However, on close inspection nanosilver materials have a long, 120-year history of relatively safe and regulated use, chiefly in the form of colloidal silver. Historical perspective demonstrates that nanosilver has been intentionally manufactured and adopted commercially across a wide spectrum of everyday applications for many decades. To declare nanosilver materials as “new chemicals” with “unknown properties” that are “potentially harmful” simply on the basis of a change in nomenclature to the term “nano,” and ignoring the accumulated knowledge of its scientific and regulatory heritage demonstrating both safety and efficacy in a wide range of applications, would be a mistake that does not serve the public interest.
First Ever Double-Blind Human Ingestion Study on Nanosilver
American Biotech Labs has just released what is believed to be the first ever human ingestion safety study on a colloidal silver supplement. The published abstract for the study states that ingestion of the patented ABL nanosilver particle showed no negative effects on any tested system in the body. The study included 3, 7 and 14-day exposures to American Biotech Labs 10 ppm (15 ml/day) silver solution in a double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over phase design. Healthy volunteer subjects (36 subjects in all, 12 per each time-exposure studied), underwent complete metabolic, blood and platelet count, urinalysis tests, sputum hyper-responsiveness and inflammation evaluation, physical examinations, vital sign measurements, and magnetic resonance imaging of the chest and abdomen at baseline and at the end of each phase. According to the study authors, “No clinically important changes in any metabolic, hematologic, or urinalysis measure identified were determined. No morphological (or structural) changes were detected in the lungs, heart (cardiac function) or abdominal organs. No changes were noted in sputum reactive oxygen species or in pro-inflammatory cytokines.”
Ionic Silver Safety: An In Vitro Toxicity Study of a Colloid Silver Health Product and Atomic Quantum Clusters of Silver and Gold (Ionosil Study)
Is colloidal silver toxic to cells? In this in vitro clinical study conducted in June 2007 at The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen University, the researcher set out to discover if Ionosil (i.e., Sweden’s leading brand of ionic colloidal silver) is toxic to cells, using human alveolar lung epithelial cell line A549. The researcher compared the effects of Ionosil to atomic gold and silver quantum clusters on the cells, looking for cytotoxicity (i.e. cell damage), inflammation and DNA damage. No toxicity, DNA damage or inflammation was found from the ionic colloidal silver solution.
Nanoparticle Colloidal Silver Demonstrated Safe For Humans
This company got tired of the falsehoods and misconceptions being promulgated by against colloidal nanosilver by environmentalists, and has set the record straight!
Safety Information Related to Nanoscalar-Oligodynamic Silver Ions
Another company sets the record straight regarding the safety of nano-sized ionic colloidal silver!
An Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles
Researchers tested mice for acute oral toxicity, eye irritation, corrosion and dermal toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) following OECD guidelines. Oral administration of AgNPs at a limited dose of 5,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout the observation period. Percentage of body weight gain of the mice showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. In the hematological analysis, there was no significant difference between mice treated with AgNPs and controls. Blood chemistry analysis also showed no differences in any of the parameter examined. There was neither any gross lesion nor histopathological change observed in various organs. The results indicated that the LD50 of colloidal AgNPs is greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. In acute eye irritation and corrosion study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed when various doses of colloidal AgNPs were instilled in guinea pig eyes during 72 hr observation period. However, the instillation of AgNPs at 5,000 ppm produced transient eye irritation during early 24 hr observation time. No any gross abnormality was noted in the skins of the guinea pigs exposed to various doses of colloidal AgNPs. In addition, no significant AgNPs exposure relating to dermal tissue changes was observed microscopically. In summary, these findings suggest that colloidal AgNPs could be relatively safe when administered to oral, eye and skin of the animal models for short periods of time.
Genotoxicity, Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity, Eye and Dermal Irritation and Corrosion, and Skin Sensitization Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles
This is an abstract of a 2012 study published in the journal Nanotoxicology, in which researchers tested silver nanoparticles for genotoxicity, acute oral and dermal toxicity, eye and dermal irritation and corrosion, and skin sensitization. In the bacterial and animal tests performed, the researchers found that silver nanoparticles, at fairly high dosage levels, do not induce genotoxicity or abnormal signs of mortality. There was no oral or dermal toxicity. There was no acute eye or dermal irritation of corrosion, and extremely low skin sensitization. Some cytotoxicity (cell toxicity) was observed in the bacterial tests, which is to be expected since silver is a known bacteriocide. One test animal out of 20 showed low level signs of erythema (i.e., superficial reddening of the skin), prompting researchers to classify the silver nanoparticles used as “a weak skin sensitizer.”
The Altman Study: Colloidal Silver, Where Does It Go When You Drink It? How Long Does It Stay There?
The classic 1990’s study demonstrating the body’s ability to effectively excrete silver.
Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Oligodynamic Silver
Dr. Kent Holtorf, M.D. discusses historical safety and efficacy of various forms of colloidal silver, used orally and intravenously, including oligodynamic silver. [*Web editor’s note: Never use colloidal silver intravenously except under a doctor’s direction and supervision. Some deaths attributed to the use of intravenous colloidal silver have been recorded in early medical literature. Additionally, colloidal silver for intravenous use must be prepared as an isotonic solution to avoid the lysing of red blood cells.]
Silver Nanoparticles Interactions with the Immune System: Implications for Health and Disease
In this study overview of the way silver nanoparticles interact with the immune system, researchers found that silver nanoparticles strongly inhibited cytokine production, and did not show pro-inflammatory effects. According to the study authors, “It has been shown in vivo that silver NPs act to decrease inflammation through cytokine modulation.” The implication being that silver nanoparticles may one day play a key role in decreasing inflammation in inflammatory medical conditions. The study overview also found that topical application of silver nanoparticles promotes wound healing.
Evaluation of Hazard and Exposure Associated with Nanosilver and Other Nanometal Oxide Pesticide Products
The Silver Nanotechnology Working Group demonstrates the history and safety of commercial products containing silver nanoparticles.
Silver Nanoparticles: No Threat to the Environment
Dr. George J. Maass demolishes the idea that silver nanoparticles pose a threat to the environment.
Assessment of Nanosilver In Textiles On the Danish Market: No Likely Risk to Environment or Humans
In a six-month study (Sept. 2011 to March 2012) funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, carried out by the Danish Technological Institute and published by the Danish Ministry of the Environment, it was found that nanosilver in textiles including various forms of clothing as well as cleaning cloths and children’s toys pose “no risk of health effects or environmental effects.” Indeed, regarding the potential for harm to the environment, the study authors unequivocally state, “…the scenario for environmental exposure through discharge of sewage effluent is not likely to pose a risk of biological effects in the aquatic environment arising from the use of nanosilver in textiles…” And regarding human exposure, the researchers further state, “The calculated risk ratios relevant for the three selected human exposure scenarios indicate that the risk from each individual scenario is very low. Also combined exposures from different sources with similar migration patterns are not likely to pose an unacceptable risk to consumers based on the findings in this study.”
Federal Register: Residues of Silver in Foods from Food Contact Surface Sanitizing Solutions; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance
Spray silver disinfectant products are ruled safe for use on food contact surfaces by EPA.
History of the Medical Use of Silver
Silver has been used for at least six millennia to prevent microbial infections, and was the most important antimicrobial agent available before the introduction of antibiotics.
The Long History of Silver in Health and Healing
The germicidal properties of silver, although not recognized as such, have been utilized since the times of the ancient Mediterranean and Asiatic cultures.
Science Digest’s 1978 Article on Silver and Healing by Jim Powell
This is the famous, oft-quoted 1978 Science Digest article on silver and healing, by Jim Powell, in its entirety.
Activity of Colloidal Silver Preparations Towards Smallpox Virus
Colloidal silver demonstrated to be effective against smallpox virus.
Characterization of Antiplatelet Properties of Silver Nanoparticles
Silver nanoparticles prevent blood from clotting in animal model and in vitro.
Antitumor Activity of Colloidal Silver on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells
Will colloidal silver be the first big cure for breast cancer?
Toxicity of Nanosilver on Osteoblast Cancerous Cell Line
According to the authors of this study, published in the journal International Nano Letters (January 2011), nanosilver exhibited “broad spectrum inhibition” against the cancer cell line studied. The authors state, “Many attempts have been made to use silver nanoparticles as an anti-cancer agent and they have all turned up positive…The purpose of this study was to assess the biological assay of nanosilver (Nanocid®) on osteoblast (G292) cancerous cell line. The effect of nanosilver on these cells was evaluated by light microscopy, and by cell proliferation and standard cytotoxicity assays. The results demonstrate a concentration-dependent toxicity for the cell tested, and IC50 was determined 3.42 µg/mL, suggest(ing) that the product is more toxic to cancerous cells compared to other heavy metal ions.” The authors concluded, “In general, silver nanoparticles should serve as one of the best ways of treating diseases that involve cell proliferation and cell death.”
Antitumor Activity Of Silver Nanoparticles In Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites Tumor Model
Study confirms the antitumor properties of silver nanoparticles, and suggest that they may be a cost-effective alternative in the treatment of cancer.
Viral Pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Oligodynamic Ag1 for Direct Immune Intervention
Retrospective study of silver-based therapeutics briefly reviews their history, and explores the modern application of charged silver particles as an antiviral agent.
A Mechanistic Study of the Antibacterial Effects of Silver Ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
Researchers discover one of the ways silver ions destroy pathogens, i.e., by attaching to DNA and preventing the pathogen from replicating.
Effects of Electrically Generated Silver Ions on Human Cells and Wound Healing
Dr. Robert O. Becker’s classic study on healing wounds with electrically generated silver ions.
Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Silver Ion in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli
Electrically generated silver ions used in washing machines are shown to cause significant reductions in bacterial counts of Staph aureus and E. coli.
NASA Document on Silver Ionization Process for Water Purification on Manned Space Flights
Silver plays a key role in assuring safe water for manned space crews.
Silver News, 1st Quarter 2010, Nanosilver Overcomes Blood Platelet Disorders
Blood platelet aggregation is serious and can be life threatening; nanosilver may act as an effective anticoagulant.
Antibacterial Efficacy Studies of Silver Nanoparticles Against Escherichia coli ATCC-15224
Silver nanoparticles are shown to dramatically reduce E. coli bacterial counts.
Anti-bacterial Performance of Colloidal Silver-treated Laminate Wood Flooring
Colloidal silver-treated laminate wood flooring keeps the bacteria away.
Silver-Coated Nylon Fiber as an Antibacterial Agent
Silver-coated nylon fabric prevents infections in wounds.
Silver-Nylon: a New Antimicrobial Agent
Silver-coated nylon fabric prevents infections in wounds.
Bob Beck: Take Back Your Power
Dr. Bob Beck’s classic treatise on healing with electromedical devices and colloidal silver.
Bactericidal Activity of Combinations of Silver–Water Dispersion™ with 19 Antibiotics Against Seven Microbial Strains
The famous BYU study demonstrating the ability of a colloidal silver solution to boost the effectiveness of antibiotic drugs against drug-resistant microbes.
Antifungal Textiles Formed Using Silver Deposition in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Supercritical CO2 processing can be used to infuse textiles used in hospitals with silver nanoparticles, giving them profound antifungal properties.
Bactericidal Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Against Multidrug-resistant Bacteria
Silver nanoparticles shown to be effective broad-spectrum biocides against a variety of drug-resistant bacteria.
In Vitro Evaluation of the Activity of Colloidal Silver Concentrate Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Postoperative Wound Infection
Colloidal silver proven effective against multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most deadly drug-resistant pathogens.
Colloidal Silver As a New Antimicrobial Agent
Colloidal silver was found to be effective against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aregnosa and Salmonells typhi.
Colloidal Silver for Lung Disease in Cystic Fibrosis
An 11-year old Cystic Fibrosis victim with multi-drug resistant Burkholderia multivorans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia responds to colloidal silver.
Ultrastructural Localization and Chemical Binding of Silver Ions in Human Organotypic Skin Cultures
The human body is demonstrated to have a specific method of neutralizing the potentially toxic in vitro effects of silver ions on human cells, utilizing the antioxidant glutathione.
Patent for Antiviral Colloidal Silver Composition
“We disclose a colorless composition comprising silver particles and water [manifesting] significant antimicrobial properties including antiviral properties.”
MTR Uses Silver Nano Technology to Enhance Hygiene Levels on Passenger Rail Lines
Japanese public railway line uses silver nanotechnology to keep contact surfaces free of pathogens
Induced Dedifferentiation: A Possible Alternative to Embryonic Stem Cell Transplants
Famous Robert O. Becker study demonstrating how electrically generated silver ions can produce tissue regeneration at wound site, or even limb regeneration, thus providing a potential morally acceptable alternative to embyronic stem cell transplants.
Therapeutic Properties of Silver: A Historical and Technical Review, by S.M. Foran
Even now, with over one hundred antibiotics available, there is a fear that many bacteria will become resistant to all antibiotics, plunging humanity back into the conditions that existed in the pre-antibiotic age. This study reviews the historical usage of silver and concludes that oligiodynamic silver in the form of silver ions may well be the answer to this most pressing of medical problems.
The Effect Of Silver Ions On The Respiratory Chain Of Escherichia Coli
Researchers demonstrate that silver ions inhibit the respiratory chain of E.coli, killing the pathogen.
Promising Cure for URTI Pandemics, Including H5N1 and SARS: Has the Final Solution to the Coming Plagues Been Discovered? (Part II), by Eric Gordon, MD and Kent Holtorf, MD
Drs Eric Gordon, MD and Kent Holtorf, MD make their case that oligodynamic silver hydrosol is the safe, natural solution to SARS and other potentially deadly viral pandemics.
Nanotechnology’s Latest Oncolytic Agent: Silver, Cancer & Infection Associations (Part III) By John Apsley, DC, Kent Holtorf, MD, Eric Gordon, MD, Wayne Anderson, ND, and Rashid Buttar, DO
Landmark studies over the past several decades have demonstrated that oligodynamic Ag+ could play a pivotal role in overcoming cancerous processes. This article reviews these findings and offers a proposal for future studies and protocol development.
Antibacterial Efficacy of Colloidal Silver Alone and in Combination With Other Antibiotics on Isolates from Wound Infections
Low dose colloidal silver kills antibiotic-resistant staph and E.coli, and does not interfere with therapeutic efficacy of prescription antibiotics tested.
Nanotechnology In Medicine And Antibacterial Effect Of Silver Nanoparticles
Silver nanoparticles demonstrated to be the answer to the increase in new resistant strains of bacteria against most potent antibiotics.
Microbial Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) and Oligodynamic Silver
The idea of silver-resistance among pathogenic microbes is explored, and placed in proper context with actual facts in this white paper by the Immunogenic Research Foundation.
Exposure Related Health Effects of Silver and Silver Compounds — A Review
This critical review of the medical literature dating back to the early 1900’s demonstrates that it is soluble silver compounds such as silver nitrate, silver chloride, silver acetate, silver protein and others that are responsible for the vast majority of cases of skin-staining (i.e., argyria) reported in the medical literature. “Many researchers attribute the pigmentation process associated with generalized argyria solely to soluble silver compounds…”
Technical White Paper: Antimicrobial Activity of Silver (Is Largely Dependent Upon the Presence of Silver Ions)
The antibacterial activity of silver ions, metallic silver and silver nanoparticles is discussed in this Technical White Paper from Industrial Biological Services, Ltd. of Berkshire, England. The paper concludes that silver ions are the principle active antimicrobial species of silver, with metallic silver being relatively unreactive, and silver nanoparticles exhibiting size-dependent activity against both bacteria and viruses. The paper also concludes “The mechanism depends on both the concentration of silver ions present and the sensitivity of the microbial species to silver. Contact time, temperature, pH and the presence of free water all impact on both the rate and extent of antimicrobial activity. However, the spectrum of activity is very wide and the development of resistance relatively low, especially in clinical situations.”
Antifungal Properties of Electrically Generated Metallic Silver Ions
The well-known 1976 study by R.O. Becker, Berger, Spadaro, Bierman and Chapin, which demonstrated conclusively the powerful antifungal properties of electrically generated silver ions.
Colloidal Silver in Sepsis
The 1915 study published in the Transactions of the American Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Vol. XXVIII, demonstrating electrically generated colloidal silver to be effective against blood-borne infections (i.e., sepsis).
Ammonia Hypothesis of Ionic Silver Utility In Vivo
This is the brilliant blow-by-blow refutation of Frank Key’s “silver chloride hypothesis” by Stuart Thomson, director of research at Gaia Research Institute. Thomson demonstrates that, contrary to Key’s assertion, hydrochloric acid in the stomach does not render ionic silver insoluble. Rather, naturally occurring ammonia in the human body — which plays an important role in health and well-being — acts as a solvent to diminish the bonding effects of hydrochloric acid on silver ions, and renders soluble again any silver bound as AgCl, both in the digestive tract and systemically. This report is excerpted from a long-running debate on The Silver List.
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the Use of Silver In Wound Therapy 2011
This is an impressive 2011 White Paper by Systagenix Wound Management, explaining the scientific basis for the use of silver dressings in wound management and clinical practice, and providing a general background on silver as an antimicrobial, including details on its mode of action, potential for resistance and safety profile, as well as an overview of the current available commercial silver dressings.
Silver Nanoparticles As Broad-spectrum Bactericidal and Virucidal Compounds
Another great study published in the September 2011 issue of the Journal of Nanobiotechnology, demonstrating the profound bactericidal and virucidal effectiveness of silver nanoparticles, along with implications for the use of AgNP’s against HIV and other viral pathogens.
Colloidal Silver Suspension for Treating Skin Problems in Tropical or Decorative Fish
This is a U.S. patent explaining a simple method for using colloidal silver to treat skin problems and topical infections in tropical or decorative fish, including the amounts of colloidal silver to add to the tank each day during treatment time, the level of silver that needs to be reached in the tank for maximum effectiveness, other necessary maintenance and care, as well as expected results.
Attenuation of Allergic Airway Inflammation and Hyper-responsiveness in a Murine Model of Asthma by Silver Nanoparticles
This is a groundbreaking clinical study concluding that silver nanoparticles might be effective in the prevention or treatment of asthma. According to the study authors, “Our study suggests that oxidative stress is an important determinant of allergic airway disease and that silver NPs attenuated oxidative stress in the murine asthma model. Also, by administration of silver NPs, Th2 inflammation, which is one of the main asthma-inducing immune factors, was significantly decreased. We suggest that silver NPs may be useful as a therapeutic strategy through their properties as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.”
Silver Ion Water Sterilizer By Jowa
This company has installed it’s silver-based water disinfection systems on thousands of European merchant ships and cruise liners since the 1970s to help prevent bacterial contamination of the ship’s water supply. These units — operating on the same basic principle as a colloidal silver generator — have been in constant use for forty years, with the occasional replacement of the silver electrodes. Millions of people have drank the silver purified water — including crew members who drink it regularly.
Use of Silver Nanoparticles Increased Inhibition of Cell-Associated HIV-1 By Neutralizing Antibodies Developed Against HIV-1 Envelope Proteins
Another fascinating study published in the Journal of Nanobiotechnologydemonstrating that when silver nanoparticles are added to neutralizing antibodies (i.e., NABs) known to inhibit HIV-1 infection, the potency of the NABs is significantly increased, and HIV-1 transmission and infection is dramatically inhibited. The researchers are apparently working toward developing an antiviral vaginal cream that utilizes silver and NABs to help protect women from becoming infected by an HIV positive partner.
Novel Microfilaricidal (Anti-Parasite) Activity of Nanosilver
This clinical study found that nanosilver has potent anti-parasite effects against the larval stage of the parasite Brugia malayi, a roundworm which infects millions of people in India, China and throughout southeast Asia. The parasite causes a disease known as elephantitis (i.e., elephantiasis), which is characterized by intense and sometimes grotesque swelling of the legs. This may be the first time that silver has been clinically demonstrated to be effective against parasites in any stage beyond the egg stage. The researchers also found nanosilver to be safe when used against this parasite.
Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles: Antifungal Effect Against Adhered Cells and Biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata
In this important 2011 study, researchers demonstrate that “silver colloidal nanoparticles” not only have a profound antifungal effect on two forms of Candida, but is also effective in destroying the biofilms produced by these fungal pathogens. Biofilms allow pathogens to adhere to cell walls and help protect them from the immune system and any natural predators in the human body. So this is an important new study, because in many cases biofilms are what stymie modern drug-based therapies from actually getting to the pathogen. Thankfully, silver seems to have no problem busting through the biofilms.
Oral Thrush and Dental Stomatitis: Preliminary Research to Determine if Silver Nanoparticles in Mouthwash and Dentures Might Stop These Infections
In a 2012 study published in Letters in Applied Microbiology, Professor Henriques and her team looked at the use of different sizes of silver nanoparticles to determine their anti-fungal properties against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. These two yeasts cause infections including oral thrush and dental stomatitis, a painful infection affecting around seven out of ten denture wearers. Infections like these are particularly difficult to treat because the microorganisms involved form biofilms. Professor Henriques comments: “With the emergence of Candida infections which are frequently resistant to the traditional antifungal therapies, there is an increasing need for alternative approaches. So, silver nanoparticles appear to be a new potential strategy to combat these infections. As the nanoparticles are relatively stable in liquid medium they could be developed into a mouthwash solution in the near future.”
Antifungal Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Dermatophytes
Here’s an interesting clinical study demonstrating the effectiveness of silver nanoparticles against the pathogen most commonly responsible for toenail fungus. According to the study, “Spherical silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were synthesized and their antifungal effects on fungal pathogens of the skin were investigated. Nano-Ag showed potent activity against clinical isolates and ATCC strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida species. The activity of nano-Ag was comparable to that of amphotericin B, but superior to that of fluconazole. Additionally, we investigated their effects on the dimorphism of Candida albicans. The results showed nano-Ag exerted activity on the mycelia. Thus, the present study indicates nano-Ag may have considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.”
Mode of Antiviral Action of Silver Nanoparticles Against HIV-1
Silver nanoparticles have proven to exert antiviral activity against HIV-1 at non-cytotoxic concentrations, but the mechanism underlying their HIV-inhibitory activity has not been not fully elucidated. In this study, silver nanoparticles are evaluated to elucidate their mode of antiviral action against HIV-1 using a panel of different in vitro assays. Results: Our data suggest that silver nanoparticles exert anti-HIV activity at an early stage of viral replication, most likely as a virucidal agent or as an inhibitor of viral entry. Silver nanoparticles bind to gp120 in a manner that prevents CD4-dependent virion binding, fusion, and infectivity, acting as an effective virucidal agent against cell-free virus (laboratory strains, clinical isolates, T and M tropic strains, and resistant strains) and cell-associated virus. Besides, silver nanoparticles inhibit post-entry stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. Conclusions: These properties make them a broad-spectrum agent not prone to inducing resistance that could be used preventively against a wide variety of circulating HIV-1 strains.
Topical Delivery of Silver Nanoparticles Promotes Wound Healing
According to the study authors, “We investigated the wound-healing properties of silver nanoparticles in an animal model and found that rapid healing and improved cosmetic appearance occur in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, through quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and proteomic studies, we showed that silver nanoparticles exert positive effects through their antimicrobial properties, reduction in wound inflammation, and modulation of fibrogenic cytokines. These results have given insight into the actions of silver and have provided a novel therapeutic direction for wound treatment in clinical practice.”
Silver Nanoparticles as Potential Antiviral Agents
From the clinical journal Molecules, a review of studies demonstrating the potent antiviral effects of silver nanoparticles against HIV-1, hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus and monkey pox virus, and concluding that silver and other metal nanoparticles may provide opportunity to develop novel antiviral therapies with lower levels of resistance compared to conventional antiviral drugs.
Silver Nano – A Trove for Retinal Therapies
Silver nanoparticles are being discovered to have profound therapeutic properties in certain diseases of the eyes that can result in visual impairment or even irreversible blindness. This clinical study review shows that silver nanoparticles may play a successful role in reversing pathological retinal angiogenesis (neovascularization), one of the most feared complications among retinal diseases. According to the study authors, “Recent findings made by us on therapeutic applications of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against VEGF induced retinal endothelial cells, elucidates the effectual inhibitory activities of AgNPs over the downstream signaling pathways (Src and AKT/PI3K) leading to retinal angiogenesis.” The researchers concluded that present clinical research “consequently affirms the futuristic application of silver nanoparticles as a boon to ocular therapies.”
Silver Nanoparticles Impede Biofilm Formation By Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis
Pathogens that form biofilms are among the most frustrating for doctors to deal with because the protective barrier the microbes are able to erect around themselves is difficult for antibiotic drugs to penetrate. The result is often relentless and chronic infection. In this clinical study researchers found that silver nanoparticles impede the formation of the biofilm barriers normally erected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis. According to the study authors, “Treating these organisms with silver nanoparticles resulted in more than 95% inhibition in biofilm formation. The inhibition was known to be invariable of the species tested. As a result this study demonstrates the futuristic application of silver nanoparticles in treating microbial keratitis based on its potential anti-biofilm activity.”
Venereal Diseases: Their Treatment and Cure
This is an older clinical report from the early 1900’s by Dr. Omar Wilson, M.D., and published in a journal called The Canadian Medical. Dr. Wilson discusses his success with the use of a colloidal silver protein compound known as Protargol, which he had found to be an astonishingly helpful treatment for gonorrhea when instilled into the urethra of the penis, followed by prostatic massage where appropriate. Says Dr. Wilson in his report, “Some years ago I was afforded the opportunity of experimenting with germicidal preparations in gonorrhea. After prolonged experiments I became convinced that Protargol gave the best results, and curiously enough, that one-half percent Protargol was remarkably more efficient than solutions of greater strength.”
Bactericidal Actions of a Silver Ion Solution on Escherichia coli, Studied by Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron Microscopy and Proteomic Analysis
In this study, published in November 2005 in the journal, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, researchers examined the bactericidal function of silver ions, using Escherichia coli as a model microorganism. The researchers found that the silver ion readily infiltrates the interior of E. coli, rather than residing in the cell membrane area and affecting the function of membrane-bound enzymes, as was previously theorized. According to the study authors, “The present results indicate that one of the major bactericidal actions of the silver ion is caused by its interaction with the ribosome and subsequent suppression in the expression of enzymes and proteins essential to ATP production.” In other words, the silver ions infiltrate the bacterial cell and destroy the ability of the bacteria to generate life-giving energy from the inside.
Treatment of Orthopaedic Infections with Electrically Generated Silver Ions
The famous clinical study by Dr. Robert O. Becker, M.D., and Joseph A. Spadaro, Ph.D., on healing bone non-unions and infected wounds with electrically generated silver ions. The study was published in 1978 in theJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery. The researchers used pure silver wire in some cases, and silver mesh in others, hooked up to a low-voltage electrical apparatus to deliver a steady stream of silver ions into the wound site. The researchers report in most cases that all infectious microorganisms were killed by the silver, and dramatic healing and even bone union took place. The researchers concluded, “Silver would appear to be the metal of choice for implanted electrodes used for bone stimulation. Its antibacterial properties, when it is the anode, would assist in controlling a quiescent pre-existing or operatively acquired infection. The results obtained with the silver-nylon electrode in open osteomyelitis would appear to warrant further investigation of its usage as an antibacterial dressing after wound debridement.”
The Antimicrobial Efficacy of Silver on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Burn Wounds
In this clinical study conducted by researchers from the Department of Pathology at West Virginia University, researchers found that when silver-ion emitting wound dressings containing two different kinds of silver compounds were exposed to a wide range of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, environments with lower pH (i.e., increased acidity) resulted in significantly greater antimicrobial activity compared to environments with higher pH (i.e., increased alkalinity). According to the researchers, “…when pH was changed from 8.5 to 5.5 antimicrobial activity for both dressings in general increased significantly (P < 0.05)… the study showed that the performance of both dressings apparently increased when pH became more acidic. The findings in this study may help to further enhance our knowledge of the role pH plays in affecting both bacterial susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of silver containing wound dressings.”
Antimicrobial Activity of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Prepared by Sol-Gel Method
In this clinical study, published in the Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, researchers from the Metallurgical and Material Science Engineering Department at Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey documented that colloidal silver nanoparticles in very low concentrations (i.e., 2-4 ppm) and at particle sizes of approximately 20-45 nm demonstrated a pronounced antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Silver Nanoparticles Effective Against Tuberculosis Bacteria
In this study abstract, entitled “Nature-inspired novel drug design paradigm using nanosilver: efficacy on multi-drug-resistant clinical isolates of tuberculosis” the authors state that by capping silver nanoparticles with bovine serum albumin and then testing it in the laboratory against “clinical isolates collected from TB endemic areas” (i.e., sputum samples collected from pulmonary TB patients) they were able to demonstrate that this novel nanosilver compound constitutes a “potent anti-TB drug.” In the full study, which is available through the journal Current Microbiology (2011, 62:715-726), the authors further state, “Encouragingly, the results indicate that this novel design could be further extended for developing improved medicinal agents for combating multi-drug-resistant TB.”
The Silver Nanoparticle (Nano-Ag): A New Model for Antifungal Agents
In this study from the School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Republic of Korea, silver nanoparticles were prepared and tested against clinical isolates of T. mentagrophytes and Candida fungal pathogens. The study authors conclude, “Nano-Ag also exhibited potent antifungal effects, probably through destruction of membrane integrity. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to apply Nano-Ag successfully to dermatophytes and pathogenic fungal strains. Secondly, the fact that preparation method of Nano-Ag described here is cost-effective is also of importance. Therefore, it can be expected that Nano-Ag may have potential as an anti-infective agent for human fungal diseases.”
Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of Silver Nano-particles on Candida Albicans
In this abstract of a study conducted at the Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, at Kyungpook National University in South Korea, and published in the journal Biometals, researchers studied the anti-fungal effects of silver nano-particles and investigated their mode of action. The study authors concluded, “The results suggest nano-Ag may exert an antifungal activity by disrupting the structure of the cell membrane and inhibiting the normal budding process due to the destruction of the membrane integrity. The present study indicates nano-Ag has considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.
Antifungal Effects of Silver Nanoparticle Alone and With Combination of Antifungal Drug on Dermatophyte Pathogen Trichophyton Rubrum
In this clinical study conducted at the Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, and published by the 2011 International Conference on Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, researchers examined the effects of silver nanoparticles — alone, and in combination with two well-known anti-fungal drugs — on the dermatophyte fungi Trichophyton rubrum. The study authors found that “results of antifungal activity reveal that the growth of T. rubrum was inhibited at concentration of 10 µg/ml Ag-Nps alone.” The study authors also found that the antifungal activity of the drugs Flocunazole and Geriseofulvin were “increased in the presence of Ag-NP’s.” In short, silver nanoparticles demonstrated significant antifungal activity on their own, and when used in combination with antifungal drugs, they increased the antifungal efficacy of the drugs.
Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticles onEscherichia coli
In this clinical study conducted at the Guangdong Institute of Microbiology at Guangzhou, China, and published in 2010 in Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, the researchers studied the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against E. coli, as well as the mechanism through which silver nanoparticles provided inhibitory and bactericidal effects. The authors state, “The combined results suggest that silver nanoparticles may damage the structure of the bacterial cell membrane and depress the activity of some membranous enzymes, which cause E. coli bacteria to die eventually… For the first time, we offer evidences to indicate that silver nanoparticles can inhibit bacterial growth and even kill the cells through destroying bacterial membranous structure and permeability.”
Silver Nanoparticles Neutralize Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses
This is a recently unclassified presentation produced by the U.S. Department of Defense’s (DOD) Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) Center for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction. It demonstrates the powerful neutralizing effects of silver nanoparticles against hemorrhagic fever viruses, including Arenavirus and Filovirus (i.e., Ebola). One of the main tasks of the DOD’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency is to “anticipate and mitigate future threats long before they have a chance to harm the United States and our allies.” The presentation was given by researchers from the Applied Biotechnology Branch, 711th Human Performance Wing of the Air Force Research Laboratory. The researchers concluded that in vitro, silver nanoparticles neutralize hemorrhagic fever viruses inside the cells by decreasing S segment gene expression and concomitantly decreasing progeny virus production. They note that viral neutralization occurs during the early phases of viral replication, so silver nanoparticle treatment would have to be administered prior to viral infection or within the first two to four hours after initial virus exposure.
Interaction of Silver Nanoparticles With Tacaribe Virus
Silver nanoparticles possess many unique properties that make them attractive for use in biological applications. An area that has been largely unexplored is the interaction of nanomaterials with viruses and the possible use of silver nanoparticles as an antiviral agent. This research focuses on evaluating the interaction of silver nanoparticles with a New World arenavirus, Tacaribe virus, to determine if they influence viral replication. This suggests that the mode of action of viral neutralization by silver nanoparticles occurs during the early phases of viral replication.
Role of Silver Ions in Destabilization of Intermolecular Adhesion Forces Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy in Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms
In this study published in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Dec. 2005, American Society for Microbiology) it was revealed that Staphylococci epidermis biofilms have been found to be “markedly impaired” by very low, non-inhibitory levels of silver ions. This is important news, since biofilms give communities of microorganisms a distinct ability to resist antibiotic drugs. If low levels of silver ions can impair biofilms, then its use may well help resolve one factor in the growing problem of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. According to the study authors, “Our AFM studies on the intermolecular forces within the EPSs of S. epidermidis RP62A and S. epidermidis 1457 biofilms suggest that the silver ions can destabilize the biofilm matrix by binding to electron donor groups of the biological molecules. This leads to reductions in the number of binding sites for hydrogen bonds and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and, hence, the destabilization of the biofilm structure… After the addition of silver ions and within 60 min of contact, the overall structure of the biofilm became partially destroyed and the inner structure of biofilm was exposed. There were also significant amounts of EPSs around the damaged biofilm colony, confirming the effect of silver ions on the grown biofilm matrix”
Axen 30 Ionic Colloidal Silver Solution Kills Campylobacter Jejuni in Minutes
Axen 30, a commercial disinfectant product consisting of a stabilized form of electrically generated ionic silver, demonstrated efficacy againstCampylobacter jejuni and therefore meets the requirements set forth by the U.S. EPA for disinfectant label claims. This essentially means the ionic silver solution killed this well-known food poisoning bacteria within exposure periods of two and five minutes. The EPA efficacy performance requirements for label claims state that the disinfectant must kill the microorganism on 10 out of 10 inoculated carriers or the label claims cannot be approved. According to the study conclusion, “Under the conditions of this investigation, Axen 30…demonstrated efficacy against Campylobacter jejuni as required by the U.S. EPA for disinfectant label claims following two and five minute exposure periods.”
A Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent in Medical Devices
This is an impressive review of the available medical data regarding the pharmacology and toxicology of silver used as an antimicrobial agent in medical devices. Published in the journal Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, and written by Alan B. G. Lansdown, the well-known British researcher and author of the definitive guide to the use of silver in medical situations, Silver in Healthcare: It’s Antimicrobial Efficacy and Safety in Use(Issues in Toxicology, RSC Publishing). The review concludes, in part, “Silver should not be regarded as a cumulative poison…Only in cases of chronic systemic silver overload situations where excretory mechanisms become saturated, does silver deposit in an inert fashion in lysosomal or intercellular sites, unrelated to tissue damage. In these situations, selenium serves as a major protective factor in precipitating the silver in a highly insoluble and hence inert form of silver selenide.”
Silver In Drinking Water — World Health Organization Guidelines
In this report the World Health Organization discusses the maximum allowable amount of silver allowed in drinking water, and reports that the “biological half-life (of silver) in humans ranges from several days to 50 days. According to the report, the liver plays the main role in the elimination of silver from the body. And most ingested silver is excreted in the feces, with cumulative excretion rates between 90-99%. The report states, “The only known clinical picture of chronic silver intoxication is that of argyria, a condition in which silver is deposited on skin and hair, and in various organs following occupational or iatrogenic exposure to metallic silver and its compounds, or the misuse of silver preparations.” The report concludes, “On the basis of present epidemiological and pharmacokinetic knowledge, a total lifetime oral intake of about 10 g of silver can be considered as the human NOAEL [i.e., No Observable Adverse Effect Level]…Higher levels of silver, up to 0.1 mg/litre (a concentration that gives a total dose over 70 years of half the human NOAEL of 10 g), could then be tolerated without risk to health.”
Toxicological Profile for Silver — Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
In this U.S. Public Health Service report from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the health and toxicological effects of silver ingested or absorbed through various means are examined. The report states that most of the silver that is eaten or breathed in leaves the body in the feces within about a week. And that argyria (i.e., skin discoloration) is the “most serious heath effect” of excessive silver exposure. According to the report, “It is likely that many exposures to silver are necessary to develop argyria. Once you have argyria it is permanent. However, the condition is thought to be only a ‘cosmetic’ problem. Most doctors and scientists believe that the discoloration of the skin seen in argyria is the most serious health effect of silver.” The report concludes, “Populations that are unusually susceptible to toxic effects of silver exposure are those that have a dietary deficiency of vitamin E or selenium, or that may have a genetically based deficiency in the metabolism of these essential nutrients. Individuals with damaged livers may also be more susceptible to the effects of silver exposure. In addition, populations with high exposures to selenium may be more likely to develop argyria. Furthermore, some individuals may exhibit an allergic response to silver.”
The Effect of Nano-Silver Liquid against the White Rot of the Green Onion Caused by Sclerotium cepivorum
In this breakthrough study, published in the March 2010 issue of the journalMycobiology, researchers found that applying varying levels of silver nanoparticles to the roots of green onion plants completely eradicatedSclerotium cepivorum fungal infections known to destroy the plants. Not only did the application of silver nanoparticles destroy the pathogenic plant fungus, but according to the study authors, it caused no harm whatsoever to beneficial soil microbes needed by the green onion plants for growth, nor was there any negative change in the soil chemistry or composition. What’s more, the nanosilver-treated green onion plants, once harvested, were demonstrated to have grown larger and to weigh more than the non-treated green onion plants. Finally, the study researchers pointed out that the more they increased the use of nanosilver on the green onion plants, the lower the level of silver being absorbed into the plant itself. The researchers stated, “When the amount of nano-silver was calculated in the plants grown in nano-silver treated soil, it was found that the concentration of nano-silver used for treatment and the concentration of nano-silver found in the plants was inversely proportional.” In other words, the plants themselves apparently reduce absorption of the nanosilver when higher levels are used on them to control the plant blight. The conclusion drawn by the study researchers was staggering in its implications: “Nano-silver liquid for the prevention of various plant pathogenic fungi is highly recommended to farmers. Additionally, the use of nano-silver does not cause any harm to human beings, and it is safe for the environment and agricultural products. In conclusion, we can say that by using nano-silver liquid, environmental pollution and the excessive use of chemical compounds in the field can be reduced. It is expected that the application of nano-silver at low concentrations will be economic, eco friendly, and decrease farm management costs.”
Silver Enhances Antibiotic Activity Against Gram-Negative Bacteria
In this June 2013 clinical study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, titled “Silver Enhances Antibiotic Activity Against Gram-Negative Bacteria,” it was documented by the study authors that antimicrobial silver could be used to help restore the effectiveness of antibiotic drugs by up to 1,000%. The authors state, “We show that silver disrupts multiple bacterial cellular processes, including disulfide bond formation, metabolism, and iron homeostasis. These changes lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria that can potentiate the activity of a broad range of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria in different metabolic states, as well as restore antibiotic susceptibility to a resistant bacterial strain.” The authors also revealed that silver-treated bacteria weren’t even able to produce a biofilm, and that when drug-resistant biofilms were treated with silver, the bacterial resistance to antibiotic drugs was negated. Finally, the silver/antibiotic drug combinations tested were able to eradicate bacterial persister cells which can otherwise result in multi-drug tolerance and relapsing chronic infections.
Silver In Health Care: Antimicrobial Effects and Safety In Use
This study, published in the journal Current Problems in Dermatology (2006;33:17-34) is by one of Britain’s top experts in antimicrobial silver, Alan B. Lansdown of the Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Charing Cross Hospital in London, UK. He writes, “Silver has a long and intriguing history as an antibiotic in human health care. It has been developed for use in water purification, wound care, bone prostheses, reconstructive orthopaedic surgery, cardiac devices, catheters and surgical appliances. Advancing biotechnology has enabled incorporation of ionizable silver into fabrics for clinical use to reduce the risk of nosocomial infections and for personal hygiene. The antimicrobial action of silver or silver compounds is proportional to the bioactive silver ion (Ag(+)) released and its availability to interact with bacterial or fungal cell membranes…. Silver exhibits low toxicity in the human body, and minimal risk is expected due to clinical exposure by inhalation, ingestion, dermal application or through the urological or haematogenous route. Chronic ingestion or inhalation of silver preparations (especially colloidal silver) can lead to deposition of silver metal/silver sulphide particles in the skin (argyria), eye (argyrosis) and other organs. These are not life-threatening conditions but cosmetically undesirable. Silver is absorbed into the human body and enters the systemic circulation as a protein complex to be eliminated by the liver and kidneys. Silver metabolism is modulated by induction and binding to metallothioneins. This complex mitigates the cellular toxicity of silver and contributes to tissue repair. Silver allergy is a known contra-indication for using silver in medical devices or antibiotic textiles.”
Inhibitory Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on H1N1 Influenza A Virus In Vitro
In this study, published in the Journal of Virological Methods in December 2011, the study authors concluded that silver nanoparticles were able to inhibit H1N1 influenza A virus. According to the study authors, “In this study, the interaction of silver nanoparticles with H1N1 influenza A virus was investigated…This study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles have anti-H1N1 influenza A virus activities. The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles on influenza A virus may be a novel clinical strategy for the prevention of influenza virus infection during the early dissemination stage of the virus.”
Silver Nanoparticles Inhibit Hepatitis B Virus Replication
In this study, published in the journal Antiviral Therapy in 2008, researchers from the Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, demonstrated the silver nanoparticles could be used to inhibit the replication of hepatitis B virus due to the ability to bind with the viral DNA. According to the study authors, “Silver nanoparticles have been shown to exhibit promising cytoprotective activities towards HIV-infected T-cells; however, the effects of these nanoparticles towards other kinds of viruses remain largely unexplored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles on hepatitis B virus (HBV)…. The in vitro anti-HBV activities of these particles were determined using the HepAD38 cell line as infection model… an absorption titration assay showed that the nanoparticles have good binding affinity for HBV DNA… we found that Ag10Ns could directly interact with the HBV viral particles as revealed by transmission electronic microscopy.” The study authors concluded, “Silver nanoparticles could inhibit the in vitro production of HBV RNA and extracellular virions. We hypothesize that the direct interaction between these nanoparticles and HBV double-stranded DNA or viral particles is responsible for their antiviral mechanism.”
Inactivation of Microbial Infectiousness By Silver Nanoparticles-Coated Condom: A New Approach to Inhibit HIV- and HSV-Transmitted Infection
In this remarkable study published in the International Journal of Nanomedicine in 2012, the study authors found that coating condoms with silver nanoparticles helped inhibit the infectivity of both HIV (i.e., Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and HSV (i.e., Herpes simplex virus), as well as bacterial and fungal microbes. The study authors stated, in part, “Recent research suggests that today’s condoms are only 85% effective in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases. In response, there has been a push to develop more effective ways of decreasing the spread of the disease. The new nanotechnology-based condom holds the promise of being more potent than the first-generation products. The preliminary goal of this study was to develop a silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs)-coated polyurethane condom (PUC) and to investigate its antimicrobial potential including the inactivation of HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infectiousness… No significant toxic effects was observed when human HeLa cells, 293T and C8166 T cells were contacted to Ag-NPs-coated PUC for three hours. Interestingly, our results demonstrated that the contact of the Ag-NPs-coated PUC with HIV-1 and HSV-1/2 was able to efficiently inactivate their infectiousness… Furthermore, we also showed that the Ag-NPs-coated PUC was able to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that the Ag-NPs-coated PUC is able to directly inactivate the microbe’s infectious ability and provides another defense line against these sexually transmitted microbial infections.”
In vitro Antifungal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Against Ocular Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi
In this study, published in the Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics in March 2013, the study authors focused on determining whether or not silver nanoparticles could be used as an effective treatment for fungal keratitis, which is emerging as a “major cause of vision loss” in China and other developing nations due largely to the unavailability of effective antifungals. According to the study authors, “It is urgent to explore broad-spectrum antifungals to effectively suppress ocular fungal pathogens, and to develop new antifungal eye drops to combat this vision-threatening infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) in comparison with that of natamycin against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi in vitro… Susceptibility tests were performed against 216 strains of fungi isolated from patients with fungal keratitis.” The researchers concluded that silver nanoparticles “…exhibit potent in vitro activity against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi”.
Clinical Observation of Gelatamp Colloidal Silver Gel Sponge on the Treatment of Pericoronitis
In this clinical study, published in the International Journal of Stomatology in 2010 (Vol. 37, Issue 3), researchers using a colloidal silver gelatin sponge called Gelatamp studied 227 patients with third molar pericoronitis, which is an infection and inflammation of the soft tissues, gingiva and dental follicle around the molar tooth. They divided the patients up into two groups, one of which received treatment with the Gelatamp oral colloidal silver gelatin sponge used in the deep soft tissue pocket around the tooth, and the other using Iodine Glycerol in the soft tissue pocket, instead. According to the study authors, “The clinical effects were evaluated….Group Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge had better clinical effects than group Iodine Glycerol…Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge…effectively improved the clinical symptom and clinical results.”
Colloidal Silver Fabrication Using the Spark Discharge System and Its Antimicrobial Effect on Staphylococcus aureus
In this study, published in the journal Medical Engineering & Physics, the researchers used a unique method to create a stable colloidal silver solution consisting of both silver nanoparticles and silver ions. The solution was then tested for antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus. According to the study authors “Traditional chemical synthesis methods for colloidal silver may lead to the presence of toxic chemical species or chemical residues, which may inhibit the effectiveness of colloidal silver as an antibacterial agent. To counter these problems a spark discharge system (SDS) was used to fabricate a suspension of colloidal silver in deionized water with no added chemical surfactants.” This resulted in a solution that “contains both metallic silver nanoparticles and ionic silver foms.” The researchers then studied the antimicrobial effects of this solution on the Staph pathogen. They concluded, “The results show that colloidal silver solutions with an ionic silver concentration of 30 ppm or higher are strong enough to destroy S. aureus. In addition, it was found that a solution’s antimicrobial potency is directly related to its level of silver ion concentration.” In other words, the silver ions were found to be the active, infection-fighting specie of silver.
Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activity Associated With Ionic Colloidal Silver
In this study, published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine in March 2013, researchers tested an ionic colloidal silver product against “several strains of bacteria, fungi, and viruses” that were “grown under multicycle growth conditions in the presence or absence of ionic colloidal silver in order to assess the antimicrobial activity.” According to the researchers, “…the Food and Drug Administration currently does not recognize colloidal silver as a safe and effective antimicrobial agent. The goal of this study was to further evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of colloidal silver.” The researchers found that “significant inhibition was observed” for bacteria grown under aerobic (oxygen rich) or anaerobic (oxygen poor) conditions. However, the effect of the ionic silver “varied significantly” on fungal cultures, depending upon the strain or genera of fungus treated. And no viral growth inhibition was observed for the viruses tested. The study authors concluded, “The study data support ionic colloidal silver as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, while having a more limited and specific spectrum of activity against fungi.”
Anti-Leishmanial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and their Enhanced Anti-Parastic Activity Under UV Light
According to this clinical study, published in the International Journal of Nanomedicine in November 2011, researchers found for the first time that silver nanoparticles are effective against the Leishmaniasis pathogen — a protozoan parasite that causes Leishmaniasis, a disease that is potentially fatal if left untreated, and which causes ulcers of the skin, mouth and nose, plus fever, anemia and enlarged spleen and liver. Leishmaniasis is currently endemic in 98 countries worldwide, affecting some 12 million people. The researchers demonstrated that silver nanoparticles significantly inhibited the infectivity of the Leishmaniasis pathogen, “inhibiting all biological activities of the parasite.” The study authors concluded, “Therefore, the authors consider a new approach, one that includes the application of Ag-NPs on vectors that carry infective Leishmania promastigotes, may be offered in the near future, and that this may prevent the disease from spreading… The results clearly show there is no need to apply high concentrations of Ag-NPs for inhibiting amastigotes, and this may be very promising for the treatment of leishmaniasis…Since leishmaniasis is spreading rapidly worldwide and because anti-leishmanial drugs have several disadvantages, the authors posit that treatment based on silver nanoparticles may have a very important role in overcoming leishmaniasis.”
Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles for the Prevention of Gastrointestinal Bacterial Infections
In this clinical study, published in the journal Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Technology, researchers found that colloidal silver nanoparticles were extremely effective against two key forms of gastrointestinal bacteria responsible for serious infections, i.e., Escherichia coli (ATCC 43888-O157:k-:H7) and Vibrio cholera (O1). The research team demonstrated that the silver solution provided stronger and longer-lasting surface disinfection than conventional chemical disinfectants and surmised it could be effectively used in place of them. The researchers concluded, “In this work, we investigated the antibacterial and disinfectant activity of colloidal silver NPs which were prepared by a UV-enhanced photochemical method….It was found that our silver NPs colloid exhibited strongly effective antibacterial effect against tested gastrointestinal bacteria at a silver concentration as low as ~3 mg l-1. Interestingly, the silver NPs colloid displayed enhanced antimicrobial performance and longer lasting disinfectant effect as compared to the conventional chloramin B disinfection agent. With these exhibited advantages, the as-prepared colloidal silver NPs are very promising for use in treatment of environments containing gastrointestinal bacteria or other infectious pathogens.”
Rice University: Ions, Not Particles, Make Silver Toxic to Bacteria
In this press release from Rice University, clinical researchers discuss the results of their new study titled “Negligible Particle-Specific Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles,” which was published in the July 5, 2012 issue of the journal Nano Letters. In their study, the researchers demonstrate conclusively that silver ions, and not metallic silver particles (i.e., nanosilver) are what make silver toxic to bacteria. The researchers found that the metallic (i.e., nanoparticle) form of silver is largely inert, and cannot kill pathogens except to the extent in sheds silver ions in the presence of pathogens. According to the study abstract, “For nearly a decade, researchers have debated the mechanisms by which AgNPs exert toxicity to bacteria and other organisms. The most elusive question has been whether the AgNPs exert direct ‘particle-specific’ effects beyond the known antimicrobial activity of released silver ions (Ag+). Here, we infer that Ag+ is the definitive molecular toxicant. We rule out direct particle-specific biological effects by showing the lack of toxicity of AgNPs when synthesized and tested under strictly anaerobic conditions that preclude Ag(0) oxidation and Ag+ release.”
Colloidal Silver: A Novel Treatment for Staphylococcus aureusBiofilms
In this study, published in the journal International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology in March 2014, the study authors begin by explaining that a patient with a “previously recalcitrant Staphylococcus aureus-infected chronic rhinosinusitis” began using a colloidal silver product as a nasal spray, and experienced marked improvement. The study authors then decided to test “whether colloidal silver has any direct bactericidal effects on these biofilms in vitro.” In other words, they wanted to see for themselves if colloidal silver killed Staphylococcus aureus under strict laboratory conditions. The researchers used various dilutions of colloidal silver. What they discovered was that except for the very lowest dilution used, the colloidal silver dramatically reduced the S. aureus biomasses. “At 20 uL colloidal silver, the reduction in biomass was 98.9%…a maximum biomass reduction of 99.8% was reached at both 100 and 150 uL colloidal silver. The study authors concluded, “Colloidal silver directly attenuates in vitro S. aureus biofilms.”


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