Zero Deaths from Colloidal Silver and Other Supplements
A brand new report has been released from the American Association of Poison Control Centers, documenting the number of deaths that occurred in 2013 from some 400,000 substances tracked by the organization.
Yes, colloidal silver is one of the 400,000 substances they track, along with most other nutritional supplements, as well.
But can you guess how many deaths were attributed to these supplements, including colloidal silver? Here’s the straight scoop you won’t hear anywhere else…
Each year, I like to watch for the report from the American Association of Poison Control Centers National Poison Data System (NPDS), published in the journal Clinical Toxicology.
The report lists all deaths from nutritional supplements, as well as from thousands of other substances ranging from household products such as laundry detergents and cleaning products to over-the-counter medications and pain-killing drugs (up to 400,000 substances are tracked in their database annually).
In the recently released 31st Annual Report, which covers data from the year 2013, the nation’s 57 main regional poison centers logged in 2,188,013 reported cases of human exposure to various substances, plus 59,496 reported cases of animal exposure.
The largest number of deaths from those exposures were due to cardiovascular drugs, which tied for first place with exposure to the pain reliever, Acetaminophen (Tylenol users beware).
Zero Deaths for Nutritional Supplements
So where did colloidal silver fit into the picture, in the Association of Poison Control Centers report?
Yes, colloidal silver is indeed one of the substances they track in the electrolyte, mineral and multi-mineral supplements categories.
And yes, as you’ve likely guessed by now, there were zero deaths reported for colloidal silver, as well.
· Zero deaths for all forms of vitamins and multi-vitamins.
· Zero deaths from botanical products (herbs).
· Zero deaths from all-natural “cultural medicines” (Chinese medicines, Ayurvedic medicines, etc.)
· Zero deaths from homeopathic supplements.
· Zero deaths from “other dietary supplements”.
· Zero deaths from electrolytes, minerals and multi-mineral supplements (except for two deaths attributed to “sodium and sodium salts”).
World-Wide Praise for Colloidal Silver from Clinical Researchers 2015-12-07
World-Wide Praise for Colloidal Silver from Clinical Researchers
Clinical research experts worldwide are singing the praises of colloidal silver, silver ions, silver nanoparticles and other forms of antimicrobial silver.
Only in the U.S. are medical authorities still clinging to the Big Pharma-inspired notion that silver is “ineffective” or “obsolete.”
Indeed, many cutting edge clinical researchers from around the world are beginning to admit that colloidal silver and other forms of antimicrobial silver might just be the answer to the worldwide crisis of antibiotic-resistant super-bugs, hospital infections, and other serious problems.
Let’s take a quick look at what some of these researchers are saying…
At this link you can find over 100 clinical studies, medical white papers and reports on the effectiveness of various forms of silver against disease-causing pathogens and related disease process.
Below you can read short quotes from clinical studies conducted by researchers from around the globe on various forms of silver and their proven effectiveness against pathogens and disease processes.
Egyptian Researchers: Colloidal Silver IsSuperior to Antibiotic Drugs in Effectiveness Against Disease-Causing Pathogens
“All tested bacteria were resistant to more than one antibiotic. The important observation was the antibacterial activity of colloidal silver against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which exhibits superior effects when compared with other antibiotics.”
– International Journal of Microbiological Research, [1 (1): 33-36, 2010] “Colloidal silver as a new antimicrobial agent,” Department of Microbiology at the National Organization for Drug Control and Research in Giza, Egypt
Nigerian Researchers: Colloidal Silver Is Potent Against Drug-Resistant Bacteria
“Our study has further confirmed the potent antibacterial activity of colloidal silver concentrate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa…In the present study, colloidal silver was shown to demonstrate very potent antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa isolated from post operative eye infection.
This activity should be urgently explored in the development of highly active antibacterial therapeutic agents to combat the rapidly increasing infectious diseases that currently challenge the present arsenal of antibacterial drugs.”
– Department of Applied Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria, and the Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Nigeria, at Nsukka, Nigeria, “In vitro evaluation of the activity of colloidal silver concentrate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from postoperative wound infection”
Iranian Researchers: Silver Nanoparticles Wipe Out Bacteria Behind Hospital-Acquired Infections
“Hospital-acquired infections are one of the most important causes of complications and mortality in medical centers. These infections have been considered as the sixth leading cause of death in US and Europe. As well, they contribute 10-50 billion dollars to the economic burden annually.
For this reason, we studied the effect of different dilutions of silver nanoparticles on some of the common hospital organisms at specific intervals. Results: All the three dilutions of silver nanoparticles studied had definite positive effects on the bacteria under study…resulting in more than a 99 percent reduction.”
– Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran, “Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Common Bacteria in Hospital Surfaces”
Chinese Researchers: Silver Ions BeatStaphylococcus aureus and E. coli by Preventing the Pathogens from Replicating
“Silver ions have long been known to have strong inhibitory and bactericidal effects as well as a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Some forms of silver have been demonstrated to be effective against burns, severe chronic osteomyelitis, urinary tract infections, and central venous catheter infections…
…To investigate the mechanism of inhibition of silver ions on microorganisms, two strains of bacteria, namely Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus were treated with silver ions and studied using combined electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis.
Similar morphological changes occurred in both E. coli and S. aureus cells after silver ion treatment. The cytoplasm membrane detached from the cell wall. A remarkable electron-light region appeared in the center of the cells, which contained condensed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. There are many small electron-dense granules either surrounding the cell wall, or depositing inside the cells.
The existence of elements of silver and sulfur in the electron-dense granules and cytoplasm suggested the antibacterial mechanism of silver: DNA lost its replication ability and the protein became inactivated after the silver ion treatment.”
– Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Volume 52, Issue 4, 15, “A Mechanistic Study of the Antibacterial Effects of Silver Ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus”; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Indian Researchers: Colloidal Silver Prevents Infections by Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi
“Scientists have discovered that the body’s most important fluids are colloidal in nature: suspended ultra-fine particles. Blood, for example, carries nutrition and oxygen to the body cells. This led to studies with colloidal silver (electrical silver atoms). An electro-colloidal process, which is known to be the best method, is used for manufacturing the colloidal silver.
Colloidal silver appears to be a powerful, natural antibiotic and preventative against infections. Acting as a catalyst, it disables the enzyme that one-celled bacteria, viruses and fungi need for their oxygen metabolism. They suffocate without corresponding harm occurring to human enzymes or parts of the human body chemistry. The result is the destruction of disease-causing organisms in the body and in the food.”
– Nanotechnology in Medicine and Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, published in the Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures Vol. 3, No.3, September 2008, p. 115-122
Spanish Researchers: Silver Nanoparticles Make Antibiotic Drugs Work Better
“Recently, due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the use limitations of antibiotics that can cause serious diseases and is an important public health problem, the synergetic effect of silver nanoparticles with antibiotics has been studied combining silver nanoparticles with different antibiotics like ampicillin, kanamycin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
The antibacterial activities of these antibiotics increase in the presence of silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria determined by the disk diffusion method. Different diameters of inhibition zones have been shown around the different antibiotic disk with or without AgNPs.
The combination effect of nanosilver and ampicillin has more potential compared to the other antibiotics and may be caused by both, the cell wall lysis action of the ampicillin and the DNA binding action of the silver nanoparticles (Fayaz et al., 2009).
The antibiotic molecules contain many active groups such as hydroxyl and amido groups, which reacts easily with silver nanoparticles by chelation, for this reason, the synergistic effect may be caused by the bonding reaction with antibiotic and silver nanoparticles.”
– Silver Nanoparticles Interactions with the Immune System: Implications for Health and Disease, CABIMER-Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology & Regenerative Medicine CSIC-University of Seville-UPO-Junta de Andalucia, Seville, Spain 2 Department of Physical, Chemical & Natural Systems, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain
British Researchers: Silver Successfully Attacks Pathogens Through Multiple Pathways
“The most important finding is that silver-unlike most antibiotics-works in more than one way. This is perhaps why bacteria may find it difficult to build resistance to the chemical. Here is silver’s multi-pronged approach:
First, silver sticks very strongly to sulfur, found in parts of [bacterial] proteins. These sulfur groups normally bond to each other, holding proteins together and keeping the protein folded up in its correct shape. But if silver interacts with sulfur, then the protein cannot fold correctly, and thus it cannot do its job.
Next, silver interferes with how bacteria use iron. Iron is often held in place within proteins by binding to sulfur. Since silver also interacts with sulfur, it blocks the iron from doing so. Finally, silver causes bacteria to produce extremely toxic substances called reactive oxygen species. These go on to cause damage inside the cell, harming the DNA, proteins, and even the membrane that surround cells.
The net result of this silver onslaught is bacteria with severe damage to their basic biochemistry. In addition, the membranes and walls that surround the bacteria are leakier after the silver treatment.”
– Mark Lorch, ARS Technica, Senior Lecturer in Biological Chemistry at University of Hull, UK
Korean Researchers: Nanosilver Is Effective Against Pathogenic Fungal Microbes
“Many studies have shown the antimicrobial effects of nanosilver, but the effects of nanosilver against fungal pathogens of the skin, including clinical isolates of T. mentagrophytes and Candida species are mostly unknown.
The primary significance of this study is the observation that nanosilver can inhibit the growth of dermatophytes, which cause superficial fungal infections. Nanosilver also exhibited potent antifungal effects, probably through destruction of membrane integrity.
To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to apply nanosilver successfully to dermatophytes and pathogenic fungal strains. Secondly, the fact that preparation method of nanosilver described here is cost-effective is also of importance. Therefore, it can be expected that nanosilver may have potential as an anti-infective agent for human fungal diseases.”
– The Silver Nanoparticle (Nano-Ag): a New Model for Antifungal Agents, Dong Gun Lee School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Republic of Korea
Japanese Researchers: Silver Nanoparticles Demonstrate Excellent Antibacterial Activity With Low Toxicity for Humans and Animals
“…It is well known that silver exhibits potent antibacterial properties with low toxicity for humans and animals, by comparison with other metals. Many researchers have recently reported that silver nanoparticles demonstrate excellent antibacterial activity.”
– On-Paper Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications, Hirotaka Koga and Takuya Kitaoka, Kyushu University, Japan
“The data presented here prove that silver nanoparticles are effective bactericidal agents regardless of the drug-resistance mechanisms that exist in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes and show the importance of silver nanoparticles in the nosocomial and community environment. Therefore, silver nanoparticles can be recommended as an effective broad-spectrum bactericidal agent.”
– “Bactericidal Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria,” World Journal of Microbiology, Volume 26, Number 4, 615-621, DOI: 10.1007/s11274-009-0211-3) April 10, 2009
Pakistani Researchers: Silver Ions Are Toxic to Infectious Microbes Without Harming Normal Cells
“Silver is non-toxic, safe inorganic antibacterial agent being used for centuries and is capable of killing about 650 microorganisms that cause disease. Silver has been described as being ‘oligodynamic’, that is, its ions are capable of causing a bacteriostatic (growth inhibition) or even a bactericidal (antibacterial) impact.
Therefore, it has the ability to exert a bactericidal effect at minute concentrations.
It has a significant potential for a wide range of biological applications such as antibacterial agents for antibiotic resistant bacteria, preventing infections, healing wounds and anti-inflammatory. Silver ions (Ag+) and its compounds are highly toxic to microorganisms exhibiting strong biocidal effects on many species of bacteria but have a low toxicity toward animal cells.”
– Muhammad Raffi, Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Nanoparticles, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Scandinavian Researchers: Colloidal Silver Spray Cures Leg Ulcers
“Study Synopsis: Sixteen patients with leg ulcers were treated with a colloidal silver spray. The solution was applied once daily for the first few days, then twice weekly. The infection subsided in all cases. After instruction, patients performed the therapy at home without supervision. No discomfort or side effects were observed. There was no persistent discoloration of the skin that could be attributed to silver. “In all cases the infection subsided.”
– Haeger, Knut. Preoperative treatment of leg ulcers with silver spray and aluminum foil. Acta Chirurgica Scandinavica, 125, 32-41.
“…silver particles with a narrow size distribution with an average size of 25 nm showed high antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including highly multi-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was found to be dependent on the size of silver particles. A very low concentration of silver (as low as 1.69 μg/mL Ag) gave antibacterial performance.”
– Silver Colloid Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Their Antibacterial Activity; Department of Physical Chemistry, Palacký University, Svobody 26, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Palacký University, Czech Republic
Canadian Researchers: Ionic Silver is a Safe, Non-Toxic Bacterial Disinfectant
“Silver is a disinfectant for non-spore forming bacteria at concentrations about 1000 times lower than the levels at which it is toxic to mammalian life. …The ionic form of silver is necessary.”
– British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Silver, Environmental Protection Department, February 19, 1996
Australian Researchers: Colloidal Silver Safely Stops Staphylococcus aureus Sinus Infections
“In the safety study, normal saline (control) and 30ppm colloidal silver solution (test) was used to flush the frontal sinuses for 14 days in 8 sheep (4 sheep each). In the efficacy study, following frontal sinus infection with Staphylococcus aureus, sheep were treated with either control saline or topical silver solution of varying concentrations (30 ppm/20 ppm/10 ppm/5 ppm) for 5 days, with 4 sheep in each group.
Sheep treated with colloidal silver showed a significant decrease in biofilm biomass compared to saline control. Although average blood silver levels were higher in the treated groups compared to controls, blood counts and biochemical parameters were normal. Histology and ciliary structure analysis did not show any difference between control and treatment groups…Conclusion: Topical colloidal silver solution has effective antibiofilm activity in Staphylococcus aureus CRS in a sheep model and appears safe.”
– “Topical colloidal silver as an antibiofilm agent in a Staphylococcus aureus chronic rhinosinusitis sheep model”; International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology; The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
Turkish Researchers: Silver Nanoparticles Effective Against Disease-Causing Bacteria and Candida Fungus
“Silver or silver ions have long been known to possess strong inhibitory and bactericidal effects, as well as a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities…
In this study, the antimicrobial activity of colloidal silver nanoparticles prepared by the Sol-Gen method was investigated [against] test microorganisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae .
It was found that the silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth and multiplication of the tested microorganisms, including the fungus C. albicans. The antimicrobial activity was observed against all tested microorganisms at a very low concentration of 2-4 μg/ml of nano silver.”
– “Antimicrobial Activity Of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Prepared By Sol-Gel Method,” Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, Metallurgical and Material Science Engineering Department at Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
African Researchers: Silver Nanoparticles Reduce the Growth of Melanoma Tumors and Breast Cancer Cells
“Previously, we reported the cytotoxic effect of colloidal silver on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. However, there is scarce information on its antitumor potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumoral activity of colloidal silver or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a B16F10 melanoma mice model.
In vitro, B16F10 cells were treated with different concentrations of colloidal silver or silver nanoparticles and cell viability was evaluated by MTT method, both treatments had cytotoxic effects against B16F10 cell line. In vivo, B16F10 melanoma cells were implanted in six weeks old C57BL/6 mice.
About 8 days after cells injection, the subcutaneous treatments were started with colloidal silver or silver nanoparticles, tumor volume and tumor weight were evaluated and the difference of treated groups and control demonstrated that melanoma tumor growth was significantly decreased. Our results suggest that colloidal silver or silver nanoparticles could be useful as an anti-proliferative drug, inducing an impairment of tumoral growth.”
– African Journal of Microbiology Research, May 2013, “Potential of colloidal or silver nanoparticles to reduce the growth of B16F10 melanoma tumors”
Much, Much More
Frankly, I could post excerpts from a wide variety of international clinical studies like these all day. There are literally hundreds of them available.
But hopefully the examples above have given you enough detail to see that researchers from around the world are finding colloidal silver and other forms of antimicrobial silver to be astonishingly effective against infectious microorganisms, as well as other disease processes including cancer.
In the future, I’ll post more examples. But feel free to browse through the wide array of silver studies posted here.
When it comes to your moods, decisions and behaviour, the brain in your head is not the only one doing the thinking
IT’S been a tough morning. You were late for work, missed a crucial meeting and now your boss is mad at you. Come lunchtime you walk straight past the salad bar and head for the stodge. You can’t help yourself – at times of stress the brain encourages us to seek out comfort foods. That much is well known. What you probably don’t know, though, is that the real culprit may not be the brain in your skull but your other brain.
Yes, that’s right, your other brain. Your body contains a separate nervous system that is so complex it has been dubbed the second brain. It comprises an estimated 500 million neurons – about five times as many as in the brain of a rat – and is around 9 metres long, stretching from your oesophagus to your anus. It is this brain that could be responsible for your craving under stress for crisps, chocolate and cookies.
Embedded in the wall of the gut, the enteric nervous system (ENS) has long been known to control digestion. Now it seems it also plays an important role in our physical and mental well-being. It can work both independently of and in conjunction with the brain in your head and, although you are not conscious of your gut “thinking”, the ENS helps you sense environmental threats, and then influences your response. “A lot of the information that the gut sends to the brain affects well-being, and doesn’t even come to consciousness,” says Michael Gershon at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York.
If you look inside the human body, you can’t fail to notice the brain and its offshoots of nerve cells running along the spinal cord. The ENS, a widely distributed network of neurons spread throughout two layers of gut tissue, is far less obvious, which is why it wasn’t discovered until the mid-19th century. It is part of the autonomic nervous system, the network of peripheral nerves that control visceral functions. It is also the original nervous system, emerging in the first vertebrates over 500 million years ago and becoming more complex as vertebrates evolved – possibly even giving rise to the brain itself.
Digestion is a complicated business, so it makes sense to have a dedicated network of nerves to oversee it. As well as controlling the mechanical mixing of food in the stomach and coordinating muscle contractions to move it through the gut, the ENS also maintains the biochemical environment within different sections of the gut, keeping them at the correct pH and chemical composition needed for digestive enzymes to do their job.
But there is another reason the ENS needs so many neurons: eating is fraught with danger. Like the skin, the gut must stop potentially dangerous invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, from getting inside the body. If a pathogen should cross the gut lining, immune cells in the gut wall secrete inflammatory substances including histamine, which are detected by neurons in the ENS. The gut brain then either triggers diarrhoea or alerts the brain in the head, which may decide to initiate vomiting, or both.
You needn’t be a gastroenterologist to be aware of these gut reactions – or indeed the more subtle feelings in your stomach that accompany emotions such as excitement, fear and stress. For hundreds of years, people have believed that the gut interacts with the brain to influence health and disease. Yet this connection has only been studied over the last century. Two pioneers in this field were American physician Byron Robinson, who in 1907 published The Abdominal and Pelvic Brain, and his contemporary, British physiologist Johannis Langley, who coined the term “enteric nervous system”. Around this time, it also became clear that the ENS can act autonomously, with the discovery that if the main connection with the brain – the vagus nerve – is severed the ENS remains capable of coordinating digestion. Despite these discoveries, interest in the gut brain fell until the 1990s when the field of neurogastroenterology was born.
The second brain also shares many features with the first. It is made up of various types of neuron, with glial support cells. It has its own version of a blood-brain barrier to keep its physiological environment stable. And it produces a wide range of hormones and around 40 neurotransmitters of the same classes as those found in the brain. In fact, neurons in the gut are thought to generate as much dopamine as those in the head. Intriguingly, about 95 per cent of the serotonin present in the body at any time is in the ENS.
What are these neurotransmitters doing in the gut? In the brain, dopamine is a signalling molecule associated with pleasure and the reward system. It acts as a signalling molecule in the gut too, transmitting messages between neurons that coordinate the contraction of muscles in the colon, for example. Also transmitting signals in the ENS is serotonin – best known as the “feel-good” molecule involved in preventing depression and regulating sleep, appetite and body temperature. But its influence stretches far beyond that. Serotonin produced in the gut gets into the blood, where it is involved in repairing damaged cells in the liver and lungs. It is also important for normal development of the heart, as well as regulating bone density by inhibiting bone formation (Cell, vol 135, p 825).
But what about mood? Obviously the gut brain doesn’t have emotions, but can it influence those that arise in your head? The general consensus is that neurotransmitters produced in the gut cannot get into the brain – although, theoretically, they could enter small regions that lack a blood-brain barrier, including the hypothalamus. Nevertheless, nerve signals sent from the gut to the brain do appear to affect mood. Indeed, research published in 2006 indicates that stimulation of the vagus nerve can be an effective treatment for chronic depression that has failed to respond to other treatments (The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol 189, p 282).
Such gut to brain signals may also explain why fatty foods make us feel good. When ingested, fatty acids are detected by cell receptors in the lining of the gut, which send nerve signals to the brain. This may not be simply to keep it informed of what you have eaten. Brain scans of volunteers given a dose of fatty acids directly into the gut show they had a lower response to pictures and music designed to make them feel sad than those given saline. They also reported feeling only about half as sad as the other group (The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol 121, p 3094).
There is further evidence of links between the two brains in our response to stress. The feeling of “butterflies” in your stomach is the result of blood being diverted away from it to your muscles as part of the fight or flight response instigated by the brain. However, stress also leads the gut to increase its production of ghrelin, a hormone that, as well as making you feel more hungry, reduces anxiety and depression. Ghrelin stimulates the release of dopamine in the brain both directly, by triggering neurons involved in pleasure and reward pathways, and indirectly by signals transmitted via the vagus nerve.
In our evolutionary past, the stress-busting effect of ghrelin may have been useful, as we would have needed to be calm when we ventured out in search of food, says Jeffrey Zigman at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. In 2011, his team reported that mice exposed to chronic stress sought out fatty food, but those that were genetically engineered to be unable to respond to ghrelin did not (The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol 121, p 2684). Zigman notes that in our modern world, with freely available high-fat food, the result of chronic stress or depression can be chronically elevated ghrelin – and obesity.
Gershon suggests that strong links between our gut and our mental state evolved because a lot of information about our environment comes from our gut. “Remember the inside of your gut is really the outside of your body,” he says. So we can see danger with our eyes, hear it with our ears and detect it in our gut. Pankaj Pasricha, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Neurogastroenterology in Baltimore, Maryland, points out that without the gut there would be no energy to sustain life. “Its vitality and healthy functioning is so critical that the brain needs to have a direct and intimate connection with the gut,” he says.
But how far can comparisons between the two brains be taken? Most researchers draw the line at memory – Gershon is not one of them. He tells the story of a US army hospital nurse who administered enemas to the paraplegic patients on his ward at 10 o’clock every morning. When he left, his replacement dropped the practice. Nevertheless, at 10 the next morning, everyone on the ward had a bowel movement. This anecdote dates from the 1960s and while Gershon admits that there have been no other reports of gut memory since, he says he remains open to the idea.
Then there’s decision-making. The concept of a “gut instinct” or “gut reaction” is well established, but in fact those fluttery sensations start with signals coming from the brain – the fight or flight response again. The resulting feeling of anxiety or excitement may affect your decision about whether to do that bungee jump or arrange a second date, but the idea that your second brain has directed the choice is not warranted. The subconscious “gut instinct” does involve the ENS but it is the brain in your head that actually perceives the threat. And as for conscious, logical reasoning, even Gershon accepts that the second brain doesn’t do that. “Religion, poetry, philosophy, politics – that’s all the business of the brain in the head,” he says.
Still, it is becoming apparent that without a healthy, well-developed ENS we face problems far wider than mere indigestion. Pasricha has found that newborn rats whose stomachs are exposed to a mild chemical irritant are more depressed and anxious than other rats, with the symptoms continuing long after the physical damage has healed. This doesn’t happen after other sorts of damage, like skin irritation, he says.
It has also emerged that various constituents of breast milk, including oxytocin, support the development of neurons in the gut (Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol 55, p 1592). This might explain why premature babies who are not breastfed are at higher risk of developing diarrhoea and necrotising enterocolitis, in which portions of the bowel become inflamed and die.
Serotonin is also crucial for the proper development of the ENS where, among its many roles, it acts as a growth factor. Serotonin-producing cells develop early on in the ENS, and if this development is affected, the second brain cannot form properly, as Gershon has shown in mutated mice. He believes that a gut infection or extreme stress in a child’s earliest years may have the same effect, and that later in life this could lead to irritable bowel syndrome, a condition characterised by chronic abdominal pain with frequent diarrhoea or constipation that is often accompanied by depression. The idea that irritable bowel syndrome can be caused by the degeneration of neurons in the ENS is lent weight by recent research revealing that 87 out of 100 people with the condition had antibodies in their circulation that were attacking and killing neurons in the gut (Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol 18, p 78).
If nothing else, the discovery that problems with the ENS are implicated in all sorts of conditions means the second brain deserves a lot more recognition than it has had in the past. “Its aberrations are responsible for a lot of suffering,” says Pasricha. He believes that a better understanding of the second brain could pay huge dividends in our efforts to control all sorts of conditions, from obesity and diabetes to problems normally associated with the brain such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Yet the number of researchers investigating the second brain remains small. “Given it’s potential, it’s astonishing how little attention has been paid to it,” says Pasricha.
Mental illnesses of the gut
A growing realisation that the nervous system in our gut is not just responsible for digestion (see main story) is partly fuelled by discoveries that this “second brain” is implicated in a wide variety of brain disorders. In Parkinson’s disease, for example, the problems with movement and muscle control are caused by a loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. However, Heiko Braak at the University of Frankfurt, Germany, has found that the protein clumps that do the damage, called Lewy bodies, also show up in dopamine-producing neurons in the gut. In fact, judging by the distribution of Lewy bodies in people who died of Parkinson’s, Braak thinks it actually starts in the gut, as the result of an environmental trigger such as a virus, and then spreads to the brain via the vagus nerve.
Likewise, the characteristic plaques or tangles found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s are present in neurons in their guts too. And people with autism are prone to gastrointestinal problems, which are thought to be caused by the same genetic mutation that affects neurons in the brain.
Although we are only just beginning to understand the interactions between the two brains, already the gut offers a window into the pathology of the brain, says Pankaj Pasricha at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. “We can theoretically use gut biopsies to make early diagnoses, as well as to monitor response to treatments.”
Cells in the second brain could even be used as a treatment themselves. One experimental intervention for neurodegenerative diseases involves transplanting neural stem cells into the brain to replenish lost neurons. Harvesting these cells from the brain or spinal cord is not easy, but now neural stem cells have been found in the gut of human adults (Cell Tissue Research, vol 344, p 217). These could, in theory, be harvested using a simple endoscopic gut biopsy, providing a ready source of neural stem cells. Indeed, Pasricha’s team is now planning to use them to treat diseases including Parkinson’s.
We have seen some great results with this liver cleanse. It is simple to do and most everyone can find all the products necessary. Here is what you will need:
100% natural apple juice
magnesium sulfate (a.k.a. epsom salt)
cold pressed olive oil
fresh squeezed grapefruit juice
For 6 days, take 1 litre of the natural apple juice throughout the day. Your diet can be the same as always – there is no need to change anything. Of course sugars should be eliminated anyway.
On the beginning of the 6th day:
Throughout the day, drink 1 litre of apple juice until 4 pm
At 6 pm take 1 tablespoon epsom salts in 180 ml water
At 8 pm take 1 tablespoon epsom salts in 180 ml water
At 10 pm mix 250 ml of cold pressed extra virgin olive oil withy 250 ml of freshly squeezed grapefruit juice and get to bed, sleeping on your right side
At 6 am take 1 tablespoon of epsom salts in 180 ml water
At 8 am take 1 tablespoon of epsom salts in 180 ml water
On this last day, your diet should not be as usual. Eat light all day – perhaps eggs in the morning and vegetables in the afternoon and that night. Eat foods that the body can process quickly, not meats and other heavy foods.
Source: Health Sacraments Workbook : Genesis Health & Healing
time loop is a consortium of scientists founded in 2013 with the objective to understand the morgellons disease and announce possible prophylactical solutions to be found in the field of Environmental Medicine.
In coopertion with the Austrian company biopure the consortium created a number of products that – being food supplementaries – have the potential to serve as a prophylactical solution for a number of morgellon-related diseases – that normally show up before an outbreak of the morgellons and that have been classified as non-healable:
Malfunction of the liver
Herpes as a secondary symptom serving the extraction of fungus-poisons from the body
The secondary detox mechanisms neurodermatitis/heyfever/asthma
The morgellons disease can be traced back to transhumanistic technologies.
These technologies utilize self-replicating nano-bots that are half biological, half technoloical units. These units are dependent of a supply of heavy metal compunds to function. While trying to undersand this concept, other artificial particles caught our attention.
This lead us to a new understanding of degenerative old age diseases. While dealing with the complex interaction of mercury poisoning, lack of cooper, piezoelectric nano-particles and heavy metal poisoning we developed a new concept to prophylactically treat the following diseases.
Remedies are about to be released.
Due to the tremendous side effects of antibiotics onto the biochemical environment that have been revealed during our research, the consortium did its best to develop an non-harming alternative to the treatment with antibiotics.
As an answer to the weaponizing of the spanish flu by the US miliary the consortium developed a influenza-remedy that is designed to prophylactically reduce the danger of bacteriological co-infections, by moisturization and calming of the mucosa. These co-infections had been the reason for the high mortality of the spanish flu back in the 20s. Anecdotally, the remedy developed also was used to successfully treat the symptoms of less dangerous influenza-infections.
Before the invention of the refrigerator, it was common practice to drop a silver coin into a container of milk as a preservative because silver was known to prevent the growth of algae, bacteria and other undesirable organisms.
Dating back to ancient times, silver was also a popular remedy to stop the spread of diseases. Its use as a natural antibiotic continued all the way until the 1940s, when modern antibiotics arrived.
Today, obviously, people don’t need to drop silver coins into their water to experience colloidal silver benefits! All you need to do is carefully take a few drops from a bottle that you buy at the store, which is:
“A solution of water containing nanometre sized particles of suspended silver. The total silver content is expressed as milligrams of silver per litre (mg/L) of water which is numerically the same as parts per million (ppm). The total silver content is divided into two forms of silver: ionic silver and silver particles. (3)
There are basically three types of products that are marketed as “colloidal silver” and these can be categorized as:
Ionic silver solutions
True colloidal silver
Ionic silver –
Ionic silver solutions are products whose silver content primarily consists of silver ions. Although ionic silver is often marketed as colloidal silver, it’s not true colloidal silver. Because it’s the least expensive to produce, ionic silver is the most popular product in this category. The problem? It simply won’t produce the same benefits that true colloidal silver can.
Silver Protein –
In order to keep large silver particles suspended, silver protein-based products add gelatin. Silver protein is the second-most popular type of colloidal silver product on the market and can easily be made by adding water to silver protein powder. Again, it’s also often marketed and labeled as colloidal silver, but should not be confused for the real thing. Silver protein is less effective for human use, and you won’t experience the true colloidal silver benefits.
True Colloidal Silver –
Lastly, true silver colloids don’t contain any protein or other additives, as the vast majority of the silver content consists of nanometre-sized silver particles. (4)
Colloidal Silver Side Effects
Although the National Center for Complimentary and Integrative Health reports that colloidal silver may cause poor absorption of some drugs, there is limited research proving that side effects to colloidal silver use even exist. (17)
Nonetheless, you may come across many warnings about it causing an irreversible condition called argyria (when people turn blue). However, this is caused by misuse not of true colloidal silver, but through other cheaper products marketed as colloidal silver, such as ionic silver or silver protein.
One point to consider is that, because colloidal silver is such a potent antibacterial agent, you should be sure to supplement with probiotics during use to be sure that you maintain a proper balance of microflora.
In the foothills of the Himalayas in northern India, a certain tree has long graced the region with its miraculous fruit. Hanging from its wiry branches are clusters of ribbed pods, each a foot in length. These pods, or drumsticks, have attracted the attention of mankind for millennia, and for good reason.
While the aptly named Drumstick tree has a rather slender appearance, it is anything but frail. A tropical native, this prolific powerhouse has spread its roots across Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. And now, it seems to have anchored itself in American soil.
Part of a new wave of exotic vegetables, Moringa oleifera (MO) is a botanical platypus. A member of the order Brassicales, it’s a distant relative of both the cabbage and papaya. Its roots taste so much like its cousin horseradish, that it’s earned the title ‘horseradish tree’. Its fruit, a popular Indian vegetable, looks like a cross between an okra and a pole bean with the flavor of asparagus. Its cooked flowers mimic mushrooms in taste, while its leaves hint at spinach and lettuce. Its immature seeds are used like peas and if fried when mature, resemble peanuts.
In fact, it’s hard to find a part of Moringa that isn’t edible. Even the bark is sometimes taken internally for diarrhea. But that doesn’t come as a surprise to the locals, who consider it a living pharmacy. Moringa has proven to be a multipurpose arsenal that dispenses some of the best secrets nature has to offer. For centuries, it has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat a host of ailments including anemia, bronchitis, tumors, scurvy, and skin infections.
Drought hardy and disease resistant, Moringa is a godsend during the dry season, when little food is available. The fresh leaves and branches serve as an excellent source of forage. The leaves offer a spectrum of nutrition, rich in vitamins A, B, and C, as well as protein, calcium, and iron. They are so nutritious in fact, that they contain more vitamin A than carrots, more vitamin C than oranges, more calcium than milk, more iron than spinach, more potassium than bananas, and more protein than either milk or eggs! A traditional item in pickles and curries, the raw leaves are also perfect for salads.
As a result, Moringa could play a key role as a wholesome food source in impoverished nations, where malnutrition is often rampant. The World Health Organization has stressed the importance of amino acids and protein for growing children. Luckily, Moringa leaves are rich in these nutrients, with the added benefit of omega-3 fatty acids and a host of protective phytochemicals.
Adds Nikolaus Foidl, a world leading agricultural researcher on Moringa.
“[It] is a very healthy satisfying food that meets all nutritive needs. It is cheap to produce, can be cooked or eaten raw, sold in the market, or dried as a powder to be sold over long distances.”
Foidl has been studying the tree for over a decade in conjunction with the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart, Germany. He has traveled to many countries, including Senegal, Honduras, Guinea Bissau, and Argentina, promoting the miracle tree’s cultivation by working with the locals. In Nicaragua, he helped farmers utilize the leaf extract as a growth spray for other crops.
“Moringa leaves contain the growth factors gibberellin, kinetin, and some lower levels of auxin. We got up to a 25% increase in sugarcane and turnips, onions and radish.”
Such a bountiful increase should not be ignored, especially in areas where food shortage is an issue. Foidl, who has the financial support of the Austrian government, first came across the tree by accident. He recounted,
“By chance, I had a Jatropha plantation with rows of Moringa as windbreaks and the damn cows were always breaking down my fences to get to them. So I wondered, what is so special about this tree that the cows are willing to risk injury?”
That question has now led to a new understanding of Moringa’s multifaceted potential. As a vigorous hardy grower, it surprisingly does not require much water or soil nutrients once established. This makes it one of the most valuable tropical trees in terms of overall utility.
Like the leaves, the flowers too are edible when cooked, packed with calcium and potassium. As a bonus, they are not only incredibly fragrant, but also support native bee populations.
Moringa roots and bark, on the other hand, are used with caution. The bark contains the toxic chemicals moringinine and spirochin which can alter heart rate and blood pressure. However, they do show promise in the medical field. The inner flesh of the root is less toxic, and those of young plants are picked for a hot sauce base while the resin is added as a thickener. Interestingly, blue dye can be obtained from the wood, which is also used in paper production.
But if Moringa were a magician, it has certainly saved its best trick for last. The famed drumstick contains all nine essential amino acids that humans must obtain exclusively from their diet. Often, they’re chopped into logs, boiled, and split into thirds lengthwise. The fibrous rind is inedible – rather it’s the soft jellied pulp and seeds that are sought after. These can be scooped out or scraped away by the teeth.
Hidden within the drumsticks are even more remarkable seeds. Loaded with protein, they also contain special non-toxic polypeptides that act as natural filters. When ground into powder and mixed with water, they cause sediments to clump together and settle out. Then when strained through a cloth, they provide cheap access to clean water. Amazingly, just two seeds are enough to purify a dirty liter.
“It has been widely used at the village level in Africa to transform river water into drinking water,” shared Foidl. “I had a project working with the seeds in a wastewater treatment plant in Nicaragua (wastewater from 4,000 people). It was very effective – about 99.5% separation of turbidity in 30 minutes.”
In turn, the seeds themselves yield a valuable yellow oil called ben oil. Sweet, clear, and odorless, it doesn’t spoil easily – perfect for perfumes, cosmetics, and lubrication. It has also found use in cooking due to its high levels of healthy unsaturated fats.
Moringa’s natural growing regions and regions of malnutrition.
Kurup PA, Rao PL. Antibiotic principle from Moringa pterygosperma. IV. The effect of addition of vitamins and amino acids on the anti-bacterial activity of pterygospermin. Indian Journal of Medical Research. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13162511
Oluwole S Ijarotimi, Oluwole A Adeoti, and Oluwaseun Ariyo. Comparative study on nutrient composition, phytochemical, and functional characteristics of raw, germinated, and fermented Moringa oleifera seed flour. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951542/
Igwilo IO, Ezeonu FC, Ezekwesili-Ofili JO, Igwilo SN, Nsofor CI, Abdulsalami MS, Obi E. Anti-nutritional factors in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera (Lam). Pakistan Journal of Biological Science.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24783788
Ndhlala AR, Mulaudzi R, Ncube B, Abdelgadir HA, du Plooy CP, Van Staden J. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical variations in thirteen Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivars. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045889
Pinto CE, Farias DF, Carvalho AF, Oliveira JT, Pereira ML, Grangeiro TB, Freire JE, Viana DA, Vasconcelos IM. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective. Food and Chemistry Toxicology. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032632
Ansel Oommen is a garden writer, citizen scientist, and medical transcriptionist whose works have been published in magazines such as Atlas Obscura, Well Being Journal, and Entomology Today, among others. Discover more at www.behance.net/Ansel.
All images thanks to Nikolaus Foidl (whom the author interviewed for this article) apart from Moringa root, thanks to Crops for the Future.